TABLE OF CONTENTS


Collection Summary

Biographical Sketch

Scope and Contents of the Collection

Organization of the Collection

Restrictions

Restrictions on Access

Terms Governing Use and Reproduction

Index Terms

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Contact Information

Series Level Descriptions

Lisette Model fonds: Finding Aid

Lisette Model fonds:

Finding Aid




Series 6 - Teaching Notebooks

The teaching notebooks have not been transcribed verbatim. In some instances Model's main points have been summarized; in others, a fuller account is provided. Because Model includes a variety of styles in the notebooks (full sentences, point form, fragments, lists, unrelated words), we have used the dash as the main form of punctuation (as she did herself). Spelling errors have been corrected and spelling has been standardized to reflect current Canadian usage.
LM.AR6.NOTE Lisette Model: Teaching Notebooks
Box
Box 14LM.AR6.NOTE1 Notebook 1. - no date. - no front or back covers; spiral bound; 10 x 8 inches; 36 sheets; 19 sheets used.
1: lenses - pinhole - dispersion - refraction, focal length
1b: infinity - aperture
2: focal length - focal length divided by diameter of lens
2b-3: circle of confusion - depth of field
3b: refraction - dispersion
4: prism - diagrams - lenses
4b: diagram of refraction
5-6: defective lenses
6b: [blank]
7: [page divided into columns] lenses
7b: [blank]
8: here today to study subject called photography - drawing with light - only 140 years old - where do we see them? - newspapers, magazines, books, advertising, fashion, movies, television
8b: medicine, surgery, psychology, astronomy, anthropology - photography is a mass medium, millions of cameras from $2.50 to thousands - a giant industry - find photography in museums, galleries, exhibitions, and art books - with all this is has the reputation to be easy - a world without these images seems inconceivable - let's see how it came into existence - history of photography - camera obscura - the darkroom - in one roll one sees an image upside down - left and right - red projected by light coming through a small window or hole of the opposite wall
9: discussion of the camera obscura continued - mid 1600 - portable camera obscura - used by painters - easy to copy nature and perspective - so difficult to draw until then in spite of the eye image which has perspective too - 1725 Heinrich Schulze - observes that silver salts (. . . of a metal and one acid on different metals) are sensitive to light - now there is camera obscura - and silver salts sensitive to light - both separate
9b: 1761 Dr. La Roche - French physician and a bad science fiction writer - wrote a book entitled Symphony or the Description of the Earth - in book he invents, in writing, something which is invented only 80 years later - photography - 1802 - Wedgwood and Davy - invents procedure through which it is possible to copy on paper or leather some transparent material - he has the idea that this way it might be possible to retain images of the camera obscura - Davy picks up the idea, works with iodine silver, and searches for a way to fix the image - ammonia has been discovered as a fixer
10: 1820 - Niépce - produces the first photograph - he also invents heliography and a ship motor - accidents - Niépce has a nephew - asks him to buy a new camera obscura for him - asks his optician Mr. Chevalier - Chevalier tells him about Daguerre
10b: founding of Niépce and Daguerre - Daguerre discovers developing copper plates with mercury - 1839 French government buys photography
11: invention belongs to the government - Daguerre gets English patent for the daguerreotypes - sells it there to Talbot - camera of the time costs three times more than today - exposures 3-10 minutes - one develops with mercury - fixes with cooking salt - daguerreotype is a very thin positive on a silver plate - sides reversed - there was only one picture of one photograph - a positive - no negative
11b: 1840 - Morse the inventor of the telegraph - now photography becomes a profession - 1866 - Stueuber constructs a planar or combination of two achromats - astigmatic - the lens is free from aberrations - F8 lens the speed is reduced - 1871 - the English physician and amateur Maddox invents procedure for exposing the plate - 1873 H.W. Vogel in Berlin discovers dyes
12: bromic silver particles are dyed - Mr. Eastman has anidea - for great industry and business - with plates this is difficult but with celluloid it was soon possible - had a small camera constructed
12b: the first roll film camera - lacking international publicity - a word, a name, easy to pronounce in all languages - easy to write and easy to remember - two syllables KO - DAK - Mr. Eastman was the father of amateur photography
13: Mr. Eastman killed himself at 77 - "My work is done, why wait" - camera gets smaller, lens larger, or more precise - light longer - 1924 the smallest handiest camera was made: the Leica, by Oskar Barnack - 1929 another principle of construction - the Rolleiflex by Heidecke - the industry will never dictate - the amateur will - he is the creator of this new industry
13b-14: [blank]
14b: the camera and its lens . . . is a replica of the human eye [diagram of the human eye] - description of vision
15: description of vision - box camera [diagram]
15b-16b: comparisons between the eye and the camera
17: the rangefinder focuses
17b: [blank]
18: emulsion - emulsion consists of gelatin physical, chemical - silver chlorides
18b: film backing
19: exposed to light for a long time - exposed to light for a short time - sensitivity - when light his a crystal
19b: panchromatic film - sensitive to all colours, also red - more sensitive to blue green - ultra violet than to yellow orange [diagram of a room]
LM.AR6.NOTE2 Notebook 2. - no date. - no front or back covers; spiral bound; 10 x 8 inches; 40 sheets; 40 sheets used.
1: composition
1b: in photography we deal with a rectangle and a surface - we also deal with an image of life projected into the camera - central composition, parallel composition
2: diagonal composition, circular composition
2b: the limitations of rectangle and surface
3: infinity - photography should give you an understanding of yourself in relation to nature and human society
3b: not to construct but to make an object or subject live
4: third course, first session - photography has existed for only 120 years - in this short time it has penetrated almost all fields of social and cultural activity
4b: we must recognize and admit that the camera is a monster - mechanical aspects of photography
5: the study of photography starts with the study of the camera and its tool
5b: talent
6: the most objective image comes from the most personal approach
6b: [blank]
7: the third dimension
7b: through our eyes we see the world where each object is placed in space - perspective
8: three dimensions in painting - perspective
8b: the . . . of perspective is that when the eye looks at the middle of a picture - lines radiating from this point run to the edge of the picture [diagram]
9: on our planet the main source of light is the sun, which rises and stays and goes down - this phenomenon of light and dark was from the beginning of time a vital way to . . . and life . . . and . . . get up move and live during the day - sleep during the dark - light became the symbol of life, spirit, God, and the good - night, dark, evil, and death - I have not made our extensive study of light further isolated from the point of view of being seen, felt, and used differently in this civilization. I . . . our photography is made by light. When I take a picture of a
9b: person sitting on a chair what we get is the reflected light of every part of this chair, this person - the wall behind is shown on the emulsion produces spots, big dark spots from blue to white - the . . . of these spots = the picture and the object we photographed - we must . . . that everything we see is nothing but light and shade - and objects revealed only by the light falling on it - and what . . . it is
10: [diagram of optics/vision]
10b: [blank]
11: whenever we pick up the camera and look we force composition - composition is not used only in photography - used in P. Scl. Music - it means to put together - combine in certain order, organize - organization not new . . . nature, culture or . . . comes back to photography; we deal with rectangle and surface physical contour - many possibilities - horizontal, vertical, diagonal composition but with an image of life
11b: one opinion - five lectures
12: aesthetics versus craft or technique
12b: argues for studying aesthetics rather than mechanics of photography
13: the endurance of images in culture and our memory of them
13b: the expressive power of images and "magic" inherent in images
14: physical properties of a photograph and illusion of third dimension
14b: images as "analogies" of the real world - receptive to the spiritual side of objects
15: argues that photographs are "analogies" and not replicas of the objects depicted
15b: photographs as "abstracted" images detached from the physical world
16: photographs have an independent life and project their own magic
16b: explains that her lectures will be based on a series of photographic problems which she will explore - assumes class is familiar with photography
17: introduction to the study of a certain problem
17b: the phenomenon of the image "lumičre dans la foto pas lumičre d'un objet"
18: photographs represent relationships between object and approach
18b: through the photograph one can detect the sensitivity of the photographer
19: explains that problems in photography will be identified and discussed
19b: often technical side of photography disconnects the photographer from his medium
20: the spiritual quality invested in images - death, fecundity
20b: image has a life of its own and project certain thoughts unexpectedly on to the viewer
21: photograph as an abstraction
21b: what is striking about photography is likeness mechanics play lesser role than nature
22: argues against pictorialism
22b: tools of different artists and mechanics following the laws of nature
23: pictorialism makes photography artificial
23b: [doodles]
24: beginnings of photography
24b: camera obscura
25: development of a mechanical image
25b: five lectures - third session - perfection in both the negative and the print
26: difficult transition from the image to the final print
26b: the decisions a photographer must make before taking the photograph
27: one has to master technique in order to be free
28: printing on different types of paper, playing with distortion
28b: playing with all the technical aspects
29: the need to be curious
29b: the changeability of photography through its tools
30: variety = more sensitivity
30b: the ever - changing image is what photography is all about
31: if you sterilize by formalizing a photograph it dies
31b: by understanding the nature of the image a photographer becomes oriented
32: fourth lecture - subjectivity versus objectivity
32b: we are the subject, object is the world around us - how to comment
33: everyone sees differently
33b: fourth session
34: camera obscura - light making an image rather than the hand
34b: people today use a camera to express their feelings and emotion
35: five problems: exposure, development, printing, enlarging, composition
35b: the image
36: the instant - elements which belong uniquely to the photographic medium
36b: exposure and time
37: image is produced all at once in a fraction of time
37b: photographer has the instant at his disposal
38: the mechanical and the "selected" instant
38b: photography is the art of the split second
39: the ready-made image - many people take pictures
39b: unlike other arts photography is easy for the beginner
40: for the beginning photographer the image is put together instantly
40b: photography as visual Esperanto
LM.AR6.NOTE3 Notebook 3. - date?. - front and back covers detached; front and back covers buff - coloured; spiral bound; 10 x 8 inches; 49 ruled sheets; 29 ruled sheets used; six unruled sheets inserted at front of book.
Inserted unruled sheets:
1: development of news photography
1b: development of news magazine and the "mind guided camera"
2: development of chronicle photography
2b: development of the small camera enlarges the possibilities of photography
3: style - relationship between style and social conditions
3b: [blank]
4: photojournalism - beginnings of news photography
4b: history of news chroniclers
5: development of news photography
5b: early problems of news photographs
6: the ready-made image becomes the universal language
6b: authenticity of vision
Attached ruled sheets:
1: about the image - just the title no other words
1b: mechanics of vision [diagram of the eye]
2: mechanics of the camera
2b: physical elements of the eye
3: focusing with the camera [it seems as though a page has been torn out]
3b: physical elements of the eye
4: camera duplicating the elements of the eye
4b: lenses in both the eye and the camera
5: the camera shutter and rangefinder
5b: the image - light creates an authentic image - history of image-making
6: images were never meant to imitate nature
6b: images are interpreted differently by everyone
7: physical and mental images are quite different
7b: cameras sees in two dimensions and will produce identical images under identical situations
8: eye is an organism and the camera is a mechanism
8b: difference and similarity between eye image and camera image
9: the instantaneous photograph
9b: Gernsheim, the outstanding historiographer of Victorian photography
10-10b: [blank]
11: title of the course is advanced photography - explains what this means
11b: expression and aesthetics is the aim of the course
12: there should be no fixed ideas of what a photograph should look like
12b: history of image making
13: the ubiquity of photographs
13b: the need to unlearn preconceived ideas about photography
14: perspective
14b: seeing things we know not to be true - e.g., converging railroad tracks
15: the theory of perspective
15b: three-dimensional vision of the eye versus two-dimensional vision of camera
16: the problem of resolving this translation of three dimensions to two dimensions
16b: eye compensates for perspective - camera does not
17: one must be aware of the differences when looking through the camera
17b: [blank]
18: the eye as an instrument of perception
18b: [blank]
19: effects of light on the eye
19b: [blank]
20: evolution of the eye
20b: [blank]
21: development of sight
21b: [blank]
22-22b: physical components of the eye
23: eyes of primates - small diagram
23b: function of the cones
24: mechanics of vision for humans, fish, insects
24b: compound eyes (e.g., the fly or bee), vertical and horizontal pupils
25: photographs come into existence through sight, we see through the eyes
25b: [blank]
26: how to look at photographs
26b-27: [blank]
27b: how picture is formed - three brief statements
28-46b: [blank]
47: both the beginner and the most advanced photographer must learn how to see - talent cannot be acquired
47b: an artist must have talent - craft is one thing, art is another
48: development of the camera obscura
48b: need to experiment and not be afraid to make mistakes - train the senses to record photographers effect and expression
49-49b: [blank]
LM.AR6.NOTE4 Notebook 4. - date 1962?. - front and back covers intact; front and back covers buff-coloured; spiral bound; 10 x 8 inches; 54 ruled sheets; 33 ruled sheets used; three unruled sheets inserted after page 10b.
Attached ruled sheets:
1: history of the camera obscura [diagram of an artist] using camera obscura
1b: early photography - Pliny to Wedgwood and Davy
2: discovery of fixing agent - Niépce
2b: Daguerre
3: Daguerre's process
3b: later history of the daguerreotype introduction to America
4: Henry Fox Talbot, 1800-1877 - [rest of page blank]
4b: [blank]
5: light
5b: science and light - light waves and luminosity
6: light
6b: refraction
7: dispersion
7b: dispersion [small doodles]
8: composition
8b: dealing with a rectangle and a square and the infinite possibilities
9: composition possibilities, e.g., Coney Island
9b: photographer does not compose; the picture makes itself
10: certain patterns say more
10b: [blank]
Inserted unruled sheets:
1: the photographic essay
1b: Salomon, Saffranski and Korff, (Ullstein), Flechtheim, Munkácsi, Eisenstaedt, and photojournalism
2: top left corner is torn - fashion magazines - Vogue, Vanity Fair
2b: photo-essay
3-3b: history of printing photographs
Attached ruled sheets:
11: photojournalism - history of printing photographs
11b: history of news photography
12: halftone process - the press photographer
12b: history of news photography - Life magazine photo essay
13: photojournalism - how photos are chosen
13b: two kinds of photographers: pictorialsts and chroniclers
14: light - most important tools in photography: light and shadow
14b: science - the properties of light
15: dispersion, refraction, source of light
15b: light and darkness
16: different kinds of light for photography
16b: the attitude of the photographer towards light and shadow makes photography a creative medium
17-17b: photojournalism - a brief history
18: Life magazine - photo essay
18b: pictorialists and chroniclers
19: halftone process - news photography
19b: Salomon, Ullstein, Munkácsi, Eisenstaedt, Life magazine
20: photojournalism - pictures and words
20b: writer, photographer, and editor
21-28b: [blank]
29: history of photography - Talbot, Holmes, Muybridge, Marey
29b: photography and motion - instant
30: first official photograph
30b: [blank]
31: the instant, action, speed, history of photography
31b: being able to see motion - Muybridge
32: Muybridge experiments, Marey experiments
32b: Marey experiments
33: Muybridge experiments, criticisms
33b: invention of fast gelatin emulsion - Harold Edgerton
34: camera goes beyond seeing - the instant
34b: speed in photography
35: photography as the art of the split second
35b: the ready-made image
36: workshop for advanced photographers - introduction to picture making
36b: history of photography
37: photography as an art
37b: doing away with preconceptions about photographs
38: photography as a mass medium
38b-52b: [blank]
53: [doodles] art is never an imitation of nature
53b: photographer doesn't work in studio but in life
54: photography as a link to a deeper understanding of life
54b: [blank]
LM.AR6.NOTE5 Notebook 5. - date?. - front and back covers intact; front and back covers buff-coloured; spiral bound; 10 x 8 inches; 109 sheets; 108 sheets used.
1: the eye - its evolution
1b: the photographic camera - recording images visible to the eye [diagram of eye]
2: the amoeba is all eye - periodicity or change from light to dark - its effect
2b: transparent lenses - retina - object, eyeball, mechanics of vision
3: in beginning special areas were pigmented - heat sensitive
3b: [diagram of a box camera]
4: development of the internal eye - reproducing light
4b: [diagram of simple form of a box camera]
5: complex system of nerve endings - sight an instrument came into existence
5b: similarities between the eye and the camera
6: two focusing devices - one for air - one for water (in fish)
6b: similarities between the eye and the camera
7: flies, moths have two compound eyes - vertebrates - eyes which approach our own
7b: camera shutter corresponds to eyelid
8: the properties of the eye: cornea, membrane, iris, diaphragm, pupil
8b: eye construction [rest of page blank]
9: crystalline lens, retina
10: changing size of pupil - eyesight in wild or domestic birds - vertical pupils
10b: eye focuses by changing the convexity of the lenses - shutter in camera controls the duration of light
11: rangefinder measures distance from the object
11b: the image - through light we perceive the physical world - light transfers image onto emulsion
12: vertical pupils: tigers, cats; horizontal pupils: horses, deer
12b: [at no stage in evolution of man was the] purpose of a picture to reproduce or imitate nature - always to express the actual state of human understanding of the world and life - images are the only thermometers or measure to understand disappeared cultures and generations
13: primates - man and monkey - exercise of convergence - central fixation area
13b: human eyes are lenses
14: differences between primates and lower animals
14b: nerve endings lead to the brain and the image is then interpreted differently by each person
15: periphery areas sensitive to light, rods - cones sensitive to form
15b: images have very different meanings to different people
16: animals below monkeys have divergence of eyes - colour vision seems more developed in man - in man colouring matter is purple
16b: physical image is immediately translated into mental image
17: bleaching action is common to all eyes
17b: 30 cameras set up identically will produce identical image - without selection, without understanding or intelligence the image is mechanical
18: analogy between the eye and the camera
18b: eye is an organ and the camera is a mechanism - image is mechanical until nerve endings lead it to the brain and make it a mental image
19: until the arrival of the modern camera with its electronic diaphragm, the eye was unique because of its self-adjusting pupillary opening - the eye is a neat little instrument
19b: we have mental image of the eye, mechanical image of the camera and we have to produce a photographic image using the tools of the medium
20: only one difference between the camera and the eye - the camera is focused by moving the lens forward and away from viewfinder
20b: photographer works with all the tools of the medium to bring the mental image together with the mechanical image creating the third image which is the photograph
21: biological research has discovered more and more similarity between the process of photography and vision
21b: eye image and camera image used in making a picture
22: retina, rods, and cones act like sensitive film in camera
22b: [blank]
23: rods receptive to dim light and neutral colour - cones to moderate light
23b: [blank]
24: cones connected to the brain by a muscle fibre - only the eye is based on the use of the concave mirror - pigment is a colouring matter in plants and animals
24b: [blank]
25: photography is the art of producing images by the action of light - diagram of cones and rods, retina, light source
25b: [blank]
26: the instant - speed, action, in the beginning of photography action was not recorded - emulsion was too slow - Fox Talbot, electric flash
26b-27b: [blank]
28: first photographs where action was stopped were stereoscopic views - 1863, Oliver Wendell Holmes, "On How Man Walks"
28b: [blank]
29: a foot in midair had never been seen before - people found it [action] ugly
29b: [blank]
30: 1873, Muybridge - horse galloping
30b: diagram of Muybridge experiment
31: description of Muybridge experiment
31b: [blank]
32: continued description of Muybridge experiment
32b: [blank]
33: photos looked ridiculous, ugly - people did not believe it - Muybridge put photos on outside of a disk
33b: [blank]
34: anticipated the moving picture with his zoopraxiscope - Étienne-Jules Marey
34b: [blank]
35: made several exposures on the same plate
35b: [blank]
36: three dimensions versus two dimensions - camera and the eye - revolution in 1839 when photography could be massed-produced
36b: [blank]
37: the ways the camera and the eye differ - perspective
37b: [blank]
38: da Vinci's study of the camera obscura - three-dimensional space projected on two-dimensional space
38b: [blank]
39: perspective - phenomenon of appearance - we see what we does not exist - e.g., railroad tracks converging
39b: [blank]
40: axiom of perspective - the apparent decrease of an object as it recedes from the eye
40b: [blank]
41: parallel lines seem to approach at one point called the vanishing point
41b: we live, see, and feel in space
42: with our eyes we see in space and time - focus in individual objects see in different planes separated by different distances
42b: [blank]
43: three dimensions projected on two dimensions - third dimension becomes an illusion, not a reality
43b: [blank]
44: eyes wander from one thing to another - on surface whole image is projected in a fraction of time
44b: [blank]
45: in painting there were many ways to show depth - - seventeenth-century perspective took over - all other means of showing depth abandoned
45b: [blank]
46: photographers limited by perspective - often try to escape it by making abstract photographs - in photography the third dimension on a surface is resolved by the tools of the medium - light, tones, sharpness, unsharpness, camera angle, distortion, depth of field
46b: [blank]
47: use of different lenses, etc. - everything in space is flattened on the surface
47b-48b: [blank]
49: light is the number one tool in photography - light and shadow in black and white photography - form image on emulsion
49b: [blank]
50: have you ever watched a tree or house in changing light over 24 hours? - properties of light
50b: [blank]
51: the visible spectrum - light passing through a prism divided into rays of different colours
51b: infrared and ultraviolet filters
52: the visible spectrum - infrared and ultraviolet are at opposite ends of the spectrum and are invisible - dispersion: separation of white ray of light
52b: [blank]
53: refraction [diagram]
53b: [blank]
54: another way of looking at light - the sun
54b: [blank]
55: change of light important in man's evolution and productivity - sun gods and forces of the dark - light identified with life and spirit - darkness with death
55b: [blank]
56: with camera a powerful instrument to express light and shadow - photographers use light and shadow in different ways - Cartier and Abbot, etc.
56b: [blank]
57: next page [rest of page is blank]
57b: [blank]
58: outdoor light is easily overlooked - a formula often used for portraiture
58b: [blank]
59: light bouncing from the wall for portraiture
59b: [blank]
60: shadows are created by adding light or a general illumination
60b: light sources - catch light in the eye, eye glass reflection, long nose, strong chin, hollow cheeks, puffy cheeks - placement of light sources
61: not the placement of light but the attitude of the photographer which gives expression to a photograph - ultraviolet rays and infrared rays
61b: [blank]
62: continuation - instant - Muybridge perfected his experiments
62b: [blank]
63: Muybridge, horses, nude models, intention to create an atlas for artists - if you photograph an object in motion the object stands still
63b: [blank]
64: painters tried to copy motion - photographers advised to photograph only aspect that came close to rest, to show only what the eye can see
64b: [blank]
65: Maddox - gelatin soaked in cadmium bromide in solution plus silver nitrate - development of the Kodak camera
65b: [blank]
66: Kodak - "you push the button, we do the rest" Driffield and Hurter - 1884 Otto Schott makes lenses with Crown glass
66b: [blank]
67: 1929 - flash photography, synchronized flash
67b: [blank]
68: 1931 Harold Edgerton designed an electronic flashlamp
68b: [blank]
69: light is so intense that a drop of milk or flying bullet can be photographed
69b: [blank]
70: camera has gone beyond seeing - brought a world of life from the unseen
70b: [blank]
71: movement and expression unseen yet is stopped
71b: [blank]
72: from there on in the amount of speed is merely a matter of perfection
72b: [blank]
73: where and how is speed manifested in photography - speed of shutter, speed of lens, speed of emulsion, speed of chemicals, speed of photographer - develops sixth sense - i.e., Weege, newsreel
73b: [blank]
74: mechanical speed and selective instant of the photographer
74b: [blank]
75: instant is new in the history of photography
75b: [blank]
76: movement and expression unseen are stopped - anticipate action - ready-made image
76b: [blank]
77: ready-made image is also the reason that photography has become an international visual expression
77b: [blank]
78: photojournalism - photography and the printing press were connected from the beginning
78b: [blank]
79: history of photojournalism
79b: [blank]
80: process of reproducing photographs
80b: [blank]
81: halftone process or plates
81b: [blank]
82: great illustrated weeklies used them from time to time
82b: [blank]
83: Fenton's Crimean War, Brady's Civil War appeared
83b: [blank]
84: halftone process 1850 - took years to be believed
84b-85b: [blank]
86: agencies came into existence - picture stories appear
86b: [blank]
87: picture stories - London Illustrated News, Brady, Nadar's son, etc.
87b: [blank]
88: in 1892 the Illustrated American - later writing reduced to captions
88b: [blank]
89: idea revived by Henry Luce in 1936 - Life and Time magazines
89b: [blank]
90: the photo essay - written and photographed to order
90b: [blank]
91: pictures became more informal, less posed - during the war Life had a school for army photographers - photojournalism introduced into fashion magazines
91b: [blank]
92: photojournalism traced back to the penny magazine - painters had a big interest
92b: [blank]
93: pictorialism flourished - also other motivations - the chroniclers
93b: [blank]
94: news photography 1840 - Morse: first group picture - Matter in Vienna took a picture of a crowd and of mounted police - Reisner, Flaubert, and Maxime Du Camp
94b: [blank]
95: the first writer and photographer team
95b: [blank]
96: editors could not understand the photographs - preferred pictorialism not the chronicle photograph
96b: [blank]
97: 1914 New York Times added a photogravure section - chronicle photography had become journalistic photography
97b: [blank]
98: postwar world of mass culture - 1925 the Leica - the small camera stopped action, is more fluid
98b: [blank]
99: in 1928 comes a great photographer, Salomon - then Ullstein, a great German publication - Salomon with Korff and Saffranski, understood the importance of photography as a means of communication
99b: [blank]
100: Munkácsi, Eisenstaedt, Life, photojournalism
100b: [blank]
101: journalism - visual representation of spoken words - experience of two senses increases the reality - coming together of the verbal and the visual medium to photojournalism
101b: [blank]
102: awareness of communicative result
102b: [blank]
103: elements of photojournalism
103b: [blank]
104: photojournalism requires that the photographer be detached - camera not only a reporter but a means of communication
104b: [blank]
105: developing solutions need four kinds of chemicals
105b: accelerators and preservatives
106: rinses
106b: acid fixing bath, hardening agent
107: hardening agent continued, lenses
107b: focal point, focal length, high key
108: Steichen - my quotation - "I have been asked. . . ." "The camera is an instrument of detection. . . ."
108b: questions and answers - "In the field of what is called the arts there is no proof . . . intangible, therefore so much more precise."
109-109b [blank]
back cover: the hidden face, the eye and the camera, the instant, three dimensions versus two dimensions, light, photojournalism, the enlarger, subject matter, chemicals for development, high key, question under my exhibition (Steichen)
LM.AR6.NOTE6 Notebook 6. - date? (after 1969: reference to moon landing). - front and back covers intact; front cover bright green; back cover buff-coloured; spiral bound; 11 x 8 1/2 inches; 53 sheets; 53 sheets used.
1: introduction - took a thousand years for photography to be invented - huge industry which depends on mass production
1b: used as a weapon for ideologies - immensity of this medium - as an art form - humans beings understanding their connection with life
2: photography deals with optics, chemistry, physics, mechanics, basic and advanced courses
2b: expression - the differences from painting and drawing - an advanced course - technique is not neglected but intensified - images not new
3: the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Renaissance, modern painting and sculpture
3b: 1820 - first official photograph produced - now an instrument to make an image - the camera - Leonardo da Vinci gave the first scientific attention
4: as an art form - no rules or regulations, no routine or taboo - it is our task to do away with the presumption that we know or can dictate what to reveal or what to conceal, to dictate, or to do - human activity free and open does not mean anything goes - there is false and there is true - reality versus phoniness, an idea or belief that technique can be learned
4b: talent is a God-given gift, given to one in a million - seems to me this is not possible - everybody has talent; it may depend on amount of interest, love and work, perseverance and patience - desire for fast results, success, money, glamour, stardom, are disasters - e.g., Schönberg, Picasso
5: exploration of the image of life, not application of accumulated knowledge of thousands of pictures we have seen and imitate, will give results
5b: [blank]
6: the eye [little stick men drawings - man with bow and arrow and a fish, man lassoing a another person, blob] the eye developed as an instrument of perception [another stick drawing with a man and a lasso and a caricature of a face with the word "moor" in between] evolution of the eye - starts with the amoeba
6b: periodicity change from light to dark, day and night - eye became more sensitive to light
7: light images produced by receptor cells not just sensations of light - an actual lens systems developed - sight comes into existence - each creature develops an eye best suited for the life it was leading
7b: fish developed two focusing devices - insects develop two kinds of eyes
8: the vertebrates (animals with backbone) have eyes which approach ours - membrane, pupils, crystalline lens, retina
8b: muscles developed in the eye - different eyes - birds, vertical pupils, horizontal pupils
9: primates - man and monkey: eyes placed at an angle - exercise of convergence, a central fixation area, sensitivity to light and movement; lower animals sensitive only to light and movement
9b: the cones, colour sensitivity
10: analogy between the eye and the camera - highly polished transparent lens, adjustable multi - focus lens - emulsion usurped by the retina and cones
10b: the eye from lens to darkroom - there is one difference
11: the camera is focused by moving the lens forward and backward, away from the film plane; the eye is focused by changing the convexity of the lens; no advance in photography was made by the way the eye functions but biological research has discovered more and more similarities
11b: the cones - the rods
12: photography is the art of reproducing images by the action of light
12b-13: [blank]
13b: [blank]
pink divider: [blank]
14: three dimensions versus two dimensions - camera and eye have differences - perspective
14b: phenomenon of appearance - we see what we know does not exist, e.g., railroad tracks - theory of perspective has many axioms
15: the apparent decrease of an object receding into space - lines converge - meet a point called the vanishing point - planes converge meet at a line called the vanishing line
15b: we see with two eyes the camera sees with one - we see in space and time - we see in different planes separated by different distances - we see and feel and live in space, e.g., three dimensional slide drawing
16: paper, emulsion, the situation changes to incorporate three dimensions in two dimensions in painting as well as in photography - a great problem
16b: before discovery of perspective there were many ways to show depth - in photography depth is inherent - in photography the third dimension of a surface is resolved by using every tool of the medium - light tones, contrast, sharpness and unsharpness, distortion, distance, angle and depth of field
17: everything seen in space and time is flattened on a surface, the third dimension being an illusion
17b: [blank]
18: three dimensions versus two dimensions - camera visions almost a mechanical replica of eye vision
18b: railroad tracks converge - axioms of perspective
19: seen in space and time - on paper third dimension is there on outline
19b: everything seen in space and time is flattened in one fraction of time on a surface and viewed as a unit
20: speed in photography = the consequence
20b: [blank]
21: subject matter - the world is our stage - the photographic image comes almost to what and how the eye sees - in the beginning of photography this aspect was considered miraculous, our enormous achievement - but soon, mainly thanks to the painter's point of view, it was declared unartistic, unaesthetical, mechanical, inferior - what specific importance does subject matter have for the photographer
21b: it differs with the photographer - I select what I am attracted to - I don't hesitate, question, analyze, just follow - other photographers think, plan, research and only then go to work - also that in different ways (Cartier, Diane, Lange, Palfi, Evans, Duane Michals, photojournalism) we have pointed out, we use photography to illustrate, to document, or as an instrument of investigation or a weapon - to fight for better conditions, propaganda against war, movie screen - protest, etc. - love, hate, truth, lies - direct - beauty, glamour, disease, etc. - search; to know oneself
22: the photographic image comes closest to the image that we see through the eye
22b: what does subject matter mean? it's different for different photographers - some react to certain subjects more that others - some to very few - improve social conditions, fight against prejudices - poetry, exploration of anything - self
23: [page full of doodles]
23b: subject matter - when we photograph through a lens we inevitably force subject matter
24: rent $326.14 [rest of the page is blank]
24b: [blank]
25: telephone [$524.20 is totalled in the middle of the page]
25b: [blank]
26: Con Edison [$539.93 is totalled in the middle of the page]
26b: [blank]
27: lawyer, modern accounting, lawyer, taxis, photo equipment, massage, restaurants, magazines, books
27b: [blank]
28: drugs
28b: [blank]
29: assistants
29b: [blank]
30: doctors, income, aperture, tokio [Tokyo?]
30b-31b: [blank]
32: it took hundreds of years to find and invent photography - a tremendous technological achievement - - without photography no astrology, no computers, no space exploration, no moon landing,
32b: but we see also in museums, galleries, books, portfolios, art form - human beings expressing their relation, understanding, connection with themselves and other human beings through the camera - photography deals with optics, physics, and chemistry
33: images not new - around for thousands of years - Egypt, Greeks, Renaissance, - modern photographers abandoning eye vision and perspective for abstract
33b: [diagrams - perspective?]
34: [diagrams - perspective?]
34b: 1820 - first photograph
35: there are no rules or regulations - no routine or preconceived attitudes, neurotic fantasies - reality - only there is no thermometer - all we have to use: sensing, intelligence, awareness, intuition
35b: talent God - given - I don't believe sensitivity can be forced - depending how much interest, love, persistence and courage - success, money, glamour - stardom = disaster - Schönberg: love proof of talent - Picasso: of all the above, success worst - vengeance of God against artist - imitation = lack of confidence in oneself - professional, conditioning
36: life image, eye, camera
36b-40b: [blank]
pink divider: [blank]
41: three dimensions versus two dimensions - revolution when in 1839 photographs could be mass-produced
41b: [blank]
42: we have seen in perspective for millions of years but no awareness of it - Leonardo and camera obscura - third dimension is an illusion
42b: [blank]
43: perspective deals with phenomenon of illusion - railroad tracks
43b: [blank]
44: with our eyes we see in space and time
44b: [blank]
45: our eyes wander from one object to another - focusing and refocusing
45b: [blank]
46: only 30-40 years ago painting rejected - perspective
46b: [blank]
47: through inventiveness of Daguerre and Niépce, mass production came into existence - see in space and time
47b: [blank]
48: three dimensions versus two dimensions - the eye image and the lens image - that is why in 1839 could be mass produced - a miracle - Victor Hugo, etc. - lens system developed in the human eye
48b: [blank]
49: we see in what is called perspective - camera obscura
49b: [blank]
50: camera obscura - perspective
50b: [blank]
51: perspective deals with phenomenon of appearance
51b: we see in different planes
52: let [rest of page is blank]
52b: [blank]
53: let [rest of page is blank]
53b: three dimensions
inside back cover: introduction - the eye - sequences - subjective, objective - abstract painting versus abstract photography - subject matter
LM.AR6.NOTE7 Notebook 7. - date?. - front and back covers intact; front cover mottled green; back cover buff-coloured; spiral bound; 11 x 8 1/2 inches; 158 sheets; 17 sheets used.
1: composition - word used in photography, painting, sculpture, music
1b: [blank]
2: in our civilization and work there is organization or order - in photography we inevitably deal with a rectangle or square and a surface - we also deal with our image of life coming through the lens
2b: [blank]
3: the rectangle, the square, and the surface are merely physical containers - they have names such as central, parallel, diagonal, and circular composition - the image of life
3b: [blank]
4: on the one hand the photographer faces the small rectangle and the square and struggles with its limitation - on the other side, he gets lost in the infinite aspects of what we called the image of life - how is he going to select in this ocean of images?
4b: [blank]
5: we can also photograph one object - part of it - any part of it or the sky or the ocean
5b: [blank]
6: we can photograph infinity or a microbe by sensing, understanding, feeling the meaning of life around - its significance, order, rhythm to connect with it
6b: [blank]
7: he will have to use all the tools of the medium - and let its subject fall into place instead of organizing it - and by doing so another image will come into life - very different from the image of the eye - the photograph
7b-8b: [blank]
9: composing is not shifting subject matter around to make it look better or more effective - we let subject matter coordinate itself - fall into place - the picture makes itself - Tudor
9b: [blank]
10: composition is the result of all tools, including the photographer - understanding attitude brings it about - - it is what you feel about - and say it in terms of photography - no rules, no preconceived ideas, no applied formulas - only what says more
10b: no computer, no astronomy, no underwater exploration no space exploration, no moon landing without photography
11: introduction - it took man thousands of years to discover, to invent photography - a giant industry -
11b: today photography an important tool for the exploration of E.S.P.
12: you realize the immensity of this medium - photography as an art, which means: human beings expressing their understanding and their connection with life and with themselves through a new instrument, a new vision - the camera, a small but important aspect of photography
12b: photography deals with optics, chemistry, physics, mechanics - the photographer needs special training
13: the study of the image in photography - understanding its entirely different structure and existence - be aware of its new aspect and expression - that it has brought a new world, a new understanding of life to man
13b: it is not just a good print, but depending on what is needed, the print for what is intended to be conveyed, etc.
14: images not new - prehistoric, Egyptians, Greeks, the Renaissance
14b: discovering perspective - modern painting and sculpture - discarding subject matter completely - dealing with surface shapes and forms in connection with space and time
15: Leonardo - camera obscura
15b: when it comes to any art form it is important to realize that there are no rules and regulations, outdated laws, or preconceived ideas - that is our task: to do away with presumption that we know or can dictate what can be revealed or what has to be conceived
16: the field of human activity is free - with all this freedom there is one hitch - not everything goes - there is the true and there is the false - to be free does not mean to be sloppy
16b: art comes through one's heart - or something coming into existence - it is generally believed that technique can be learned or acquired by anybody - but talent is God-given - you have it or not - I rather believe that awareness, sensitivity, which is talent, can be trained and it can grow and be trained not by accumulation of
17: knowledge or acceptance of philosophies but in a different way one can be sensitized - let us try - the picture makes itself - talent: Schönberg; success: Picasso; imitations: photographing what and how one has seen it photographed, not inspired by life and its direct image
17b: too much admiration for others leads to lack of self-respect
inside back cover: (1) composition (2) introduction
LM.AR6.NOTE8 Notebook 8. - date?. - front and back covers intact; front and back covers mottled blue-green; spiral bound; 11 x 8 1/2 inches; 18 sheets; 18 sheets used.
1: [page full of doodles]
1b: [doodles]
2: [doodles] 136 Houston Street - Cr 72650 - Soltanoff [?] - Delitza 30.75.2
2b: [blank]
3:

Name: Lisette Model

Address: 137 7th Avenue South, New York, N.Y. 10014

I. Personal history

Present occupation: Freelance Photographer, Instructor of Photography at the New School and private at my studio

Place of Birth: Vienna, Austria

Date of Birth: November 10, 190[?]

Are you an American citizen?

If you are naturalized give date and place of naturalization: July 20th, 1944, Southern District of New York

Number of dependants other than yourself: one, my husband

What is your estimated income from other sources in the year or years in which you will be working on your project? about $4,000 earned from photography assignments, teaching, and selling photographs to museums and collectors

3b:

II. Academic and Occupational Background

Summarize your academic background listing colleges, universities, or other institutions of learning attended with degrees, diplomas, and certificates: private tutoring: . . . eight years including Latin, Greek, higher mathematics, etc. trained musician: Studied composition with Arnold Schönberg - the piano with late pianist Eduard Steuermann (late professor, Julliard School of Music) and singing - continued studies in Paris with Marya Freund and speak and write four languages

Summarize your occupational background indicating your position held and dates of tenure: Photographer - worked for Harper's Bazaar from 1941 to 1954 - freelancing for Look magazine, Ladies Home Journal, Vogue, U.S. Camera, Popular Photography, Modern Photography, Saturday Evening Post, Creative Camera London, Infinity, Camera (Switzerland), Instructor in Photography - San Francisco School of Fine Arts - New School (1951-1970) - and in my studio - visual arts, Pratt, Washington, Baltimore, Providence, Chicago, and San Francisco

List of fellowships and scholarships: John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship - awarded March 17, 1965 - Project: photographic studies of the social and artistic history of our time

4:

The Boscop Foundation Grant $500 for the continuation of the project - Merril Foundation

List your publications giving title, publishers, and date of publication of each: Harper's Bazaar, all magazines; photographs appeared in the following books: Photographs of the World, Poet's Camera, 20th Century Photography, Encyclopedia of Photography, two U.S. Camera annuals, Harper's 100 Years of Fashion, Museum of Modern Art Calendars, The Family of Man, History of Photography Beaumont Newhall; citation: Society of Magazine Photographers; Honorary member: for her great and lasting contribution "as a photographer as well as a teacher" April 1968

4b:

Exhibitions: Museum of Modern Art - 30 Photographs - 40 Photographs 15 Photographs - One-Man Traveling Show - In and Out of Focus - The Family of Man - Seventy Photographers Look at New York - represented in the Steichen Art Center, Rochester, George Eastman House, Smithsonian Institution, White House Festival 65 - Forum Gallery, The John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow in Photography, Philadelphia College of Art, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, The Fifteen Most Important Photographers; One - man shows: Chicago Art Center, California Palace of the Legion of Honor, Carl Siembab Gallery, Boston; collections: Museum of Modern Art, Smithsonian; private collections: Abbott . . . Sherwood, Davies, Ansel Adams

Represented in books: U.S. Camera Annuals; Photographs of the World; Poet's Camera - American Studio Books; Photographs of the 20th Century - George Eastman House; The Family of Man; 100 Years of the American Female - Harper's Bazaar Calendars (collection of the Museum of Modern Art 1963, 1967

5: need information - Cartier, Diane, Marion, Lange, Evans, Duane Michals: death - sex, photojournalism - like everything else can say the truth, reveal or lie, conceal
5b: how much is true and original - how much conditioned, imitated - subject matter has its fashion in different areas - abstract, portraits, landscapes, scientific photographs, self-knowledge - selection of subject matter important - often reveals the photographer
6: the problem of privacy and the law - quote: I have been often asked etc. - photographing new subject matter opens sometimes a new world - unaware of
6b: [blank]
7: the instant - 1851 Fox Talbot - Oliver Wendell Holmes - the instantaneous photograph - demonstrate human walking motion
7b: [blank]
8: positions and aspects were very different from what people were used to seeing in drawings and in paintings - a foot in mid-air - people shocked and found it ugly - Muybridge showed a horse galloping
8b: [blank]
9: Muybridge made experiments - silhouettes of galloping horses
9b: [blank]
10: Muybridge experiment
10b: [blank]
11: photos looked ridiculous - people did not believe it - Étienne-Jules Marey - used only one camera
11b: [blank]
12: moved against a black background
12b: [blank]
13: painters tried to copy but everything seemed frozen - 1884 Otto Schott makes lenses with Crown glass - open flash photography -
13b: [blank]
14: synchronized flash - Harold Edgerton
14b: [blank]
15: camera has gone beyond seeing - photography is the art of the split second
15b: [blank]
16: the amount of speed is only a matter of perfection - - photographer develops a sixth sense
16b-18: [blank]
18b: [upside down] the camera is basically a device for recording images visible to the human eye - this organ eye is undoubtedly the basis of photography - the similarity becomes evident by making a direct comparison - lens, iris, pupil
LM.AR6.NOTE9 Notebook 9. - date?. - front and back covers intact; front cover yellow, pink, green, and blue striped pattern; back cover white; spiral bound; 10 1/2 x 8 inches; 40 sheets; 34 sheets used.
1: book - the eye developed originally as a tool of perception for the purpose of survival - evolution of the eye - pigmented eye spots
1b: with time the spots lost their sensitivity - internal structure of the eye - lens system came into existence - complex system of nerve endings - sight - -
2: each creature developed an eye best for the life it was leading - fish, fly, vertebrates - the cornea - the iris
2b: pupil, crystalline lens, retina - as evolution proceeded, muscles were developed both inside and outside the eye chamber - horizontal and vertical pupils - small eyes for slow - moving animals - -
3: muscles, blood vessels, and nerves - primates - - convergence of eyes
3b: animals below monkeys and men - divergence of eyes - colour vision more developed in man - development of cone vision
4: analogy between the eye and the camera
4b: the eye from lens to dark room
5: these similarities go beyond optics and involve chemistry and physics
5b: cones, rods, membrane - photography is the art of producing images by the action of light
6: light - the number one tool in photography
6b: when the camera came into existence we had a powerful instrument to use light and shadow in a creative way - -
7: every photographer has a special light condition - Cartier, Abbott, etc.
7b: [blank]
8: three dimensions versus two - see in perspective
8b: perspective - deals with the phenomenon of appearance
9: seeing with two eyes - see in space and time
9b: three dimensions projected on two dimensions
10: in painting before the event of perspective and after there are many different ways of showing depth
10b: everything seen in space is flattened on a surface
11-11b: [blank]
12: photojournalism - from the beginning photographs and the printing press were linked
12b: 1880 the halftone process - at the same time a technological revolution in photography took place - -
13: news photography - the press photographer thinks in terms of one photograph - 1936 Henry Luce - The Showbook of the World: Life
13b: [blank]
14: these pictures are brilliant material for cultural class and economic history of the last 30 years - all images are projected to show the grander behaviour and social conditions of the time when they were taken - the individual aspect of man was not important in the structure of states in the strive for power and to the aspect that each country wanted to appear to the human race - and it is still going on - art at any time was associated to emphasize size, the glory, beauty, power, of established function of the state - it is related to the influence of social power and religious power - - martyrs, saints - misery today still is connected to the ideological concept of Christ - that is injustice toward human beings
14b: since then injustice, too, is glorified as necessary for human beings to overcome - misery goes on and punishment goes on - Egypt: pharaohs . . . of slaves, most of all glorification of odalisque, slaves . . . chains [doodles]
15: composition
15b: we face the image of life projected through the camera
16: we can show infinite space or a microbe
16b: we let subject matter coordinate itself - fall into place - understanding and attitude bring composition about - composition is not the best effect or decoration or a pleasant pattern one composes this way because it looks better - only because it says more
17: sensitivity or speed of emulsion - with any emulsion it is the time of exposure and the intensity of light we must consider
17b: density and emulsions [diagrams and example]
18: [diagram of a print] we have three tones which correspond visually and emotionally in black and white to the eye image in colour
18b: correct exposure: the negative reproduces the tone values of the subject matter as closely as possible
19: let us give an exposure of 1/2 [diagrams]
19b: for any emulsion there is a minimum and or maximum exposure which will produce or print - in which the relationship of tones corresponds to those of the subject - distortions caused by under- or over-exposure - concerns not highlights and shadows only, but every tone in the print
20: the idea of a purely photographic magazine was revived in 1936 by Henry Luce - Life - Time; a show book of the world - life content - spot news, feature stories - both written and photographed to order - out of this comes the photo essay; a story is decided - everybody becomes an idea man - photographer does not know what he will find
20b: laboratories are processing film and printing - the printed words are visual representations of the spoken word - hearing is related to reading - photojournalism makes use of both words and pictures - the experience of senses increases reality - the picture is seen in one fraction of time, the whole in one glance - pictures and words are read in different time and different ways
21: photojournalism says: the fusion occurs in the readers mind, not on the page - association eye, ear, and mind - photojournalist is not alone
21b: the photograph sees more than the eye - sees everything - eye is selective - the photographer can express only the emotions of what he photographs, not his own
22: composition
22b: the rectangle, square, and surface
23: the image of life
23b: we can photograph one house, several houses, or one whole city - Coney Island
24: we can photograph the ocean, the sky, outer space - how are we to compose, organize? - I think it is by feeling, sensing, relating, and understanding consciously and unconsciously the significance
24b: the meaning - in order to come to our expression we will need every tool in photography
25: another order of life has to be created through using three dimensions in two so that photography is created
25b: we do not fabricate composition - composition is what you feel about a subject matter - understanding and attitude bring the organization about - Abbott
26: the story of light is the story of life - light is the physical cause of our sensation of sight
26b: light
27: refraction, the spectrum
27b: dispersion, visible spectrum, another way of looking at light - half our life is spent in light
28: when camera came into existence man had a powerful instrument
28b: in nature we cannot create light but nature itself is created through light - it is not merely the existence of light and shadow that makes a photograph - rather the attitude and understanding of light that makes photography a creative medium
29: it took humanity thousands of years to produce, to understand, and to want to come to this specific image making
29b: [blank]
30: [signature of Lisette Model 22 times]
30b: [blank]
31: Leonardo da Vinci - principles of the camera obscura
31b: it is important to realize that when it comes to any art form, there are no rules and regulations - nobody can tell what a photograph ought to look like - it will be our task to do away with preconceived ideas, approved conceptions, rules, and established methods - but not anything goes
32: there is such a thing as truth or reality - lies . . . and phony - difficult sometimes to discern but in photography as in art, expression is what art is
32b: existence through the human connection of the photographer and the medium [?]
33: wherever we point camera at subject or object, or look through viewfinder problem arises - not only used in photography but in M.P.S.E, design, architecture . . . [?] - it means organize, put together, combine, put in an order - when we look through viewfinder, we never truly face rectangle, square, and surface - this recognition comes whenever we point the lens [at] let's call [them] the images of life
33b: on the one hand we have limitation of rectangle - but on the other - the infinity of what life brings into lens - I walk closer
34: composition is the result of all tools of the medium used in photography
34b: it is what you feel about and say it in terms of photography
35-40: [blank]
Box
Box 15LM.AR6.NOTE10 Notebook 10. - date?. - front and back covers intact; front cover hot pink; back cover buff-coloured; spiral bound; 10 1/2 x 8 inches; 28 sheets; 12 sheets used.
1: light - every tool is a physical vehicle to express ourselves and the world through the medium of photography - light is the number one tool in photography
1b: scientific explanation of the properties of light - dispersion
2: refraction
2b: there is another way of looking at light - light symbolizing spirit and life - darkness = evil and death
3: see how differently they use light - Cartier, Abbott, Levinstein
3b: it is not only light and shadow that created photography, but the selection of light and shadow that makes photography a creative medium
4: photojournalism (Goethe) - history of photography - had to be combined with type
4b: from the beginning there were two kinds of photographers: the painters and the chroniclers - the beginning of news photography in 1840
5: the inventor Henry Horgan - art director of the New York Herald
5b: but until and after World War I the word was dominant - the picture disappeared more and more - the event of the Leica, Rollei, Small Camera in 1925
6: in January 1928 Salomon photographs political events - politicians' meeting - he brings high prestige to the medium - Ullstein, a great publication or, later, publishing house, whose chief editors Korff and Saffranski were the first to understand the importance of the photo as a means of communication - they realized that many photographs can make a story
6b: Luce with Life magazine - creates photojournalism - or better, the photo essay
7: haphazard taking of pictures was replaced by the misguided camera - of this comes the photo essay - procedure of the photo essay - team of writer, photographer, and editor
7b: philosophy of photojournalism - the printed words are a visual representation of the spoken word
8: the picture is seen in a fraction of time - words are read in different times and in different ways - the fusion takes place in the mind of the reader - eye + ear + mind
8b: the photographs sees: indiscriminately everything
9: the word is important - where, when, who - but mostly captions and text tell the story
9b: [blank]
10: the world is our stage - everything can be photographed - is there such a thing as subjective and objective?
10b: subject matter has its fashions - through photography to know oneself
11: selection of subject matter can reveal the photographer - we work consciously, subconsciously, with intuition, sensitivity, and intelligence - Duane Michals - all one should photograph is nothing
11b: photography direct (eye view) and yet revealing other dimensions - Cartier - concentration, commitment, dedication
12: subject matter
12b-28: [blank]
28b: [doodles]
LM.AR6.NOTE11 Notebook 11. - date?. - no front or back covers; 10 x 7 1/2 inches; 54 sheets; 54 sheets used.
1: the image - second session advanced - it is through light that our eye perceives the physical world and it is light that traces the image on the emulsion history of picture making
1b: history of image making
2: today a new medium has come up - photography - the human being sees with two eyes - the camera sees with one eye
2b: the physical picture of the eye is immediately transformed into a mental image the eye sees in three dimensions - the camera sees in two dimensions but without selection, without understanding or feeling or intelligence - it is a mechanical image
3: in no time and in no civilization are images concerned with imitation of nature
3b: every image is the result of an impression and the thought, the understanding, of the artist
4: what makes the photographic image different from others? authenticity, inherent perspective, speed, contrast, image of light and silver, sharpness and unsharpness, mass production
4b: the emulsion and silver chloride
5: our emulsion consists in finely divided insoluble silver salts suspended in gelatin - when this emulsion is exposed to light the action of this light results in a change known as latent image, invisible to the eye until we develop the image chemically
5b: refinements, gelatin
6: chemically, colloid, albumen
6b: silver chlorides - light-sensitive salts of silver
7: double coating, film backing
7b: anti-halation backing applied to the back for film support
8: sensitive emulsion - film consists of a supporting base, glass, celluloid, paper on which is spread an emulsion (a mixture in which one component is distributed or dispersed so that separation does not occur) - silver halides
8b: silver chloride - action of light - metallic silver
9: gelatin (same as previous), sensitivity
9b: exposure - in any exposure the amount of crystals which become developable depends on the length of exposure and the intensity of light falling on the emulsion - time and intensity of exposure
10: exposure
10b: physical and chemical description
11-12: exposure examples, intensity of light, reflected light
12b-13b: underexposure - overexposure
14: [blank]
14b-15b: chemistry and physics of film
16-16b: three dimensions versus two - image of the camera lens - perspective
17: perspective - appearance and reality
17b: illusion
18: binocular vision
18b: three dimensions versus two dimensions
19: time, depth
19b-20b: light, tones, focus, angle,
21: high key - intensity and development of negatives - distance
21b: solarization
22: the instant/speed/action (Newhall page 103) Fox Talbot - Oliver Wendell Holmes - human locomotion
22b: Muybridge
23: movement
23b: Marey
24: Maddox - human and animal locomotion
24b: different kinds of cameras - see page 111 History Newhall about gelatin - kodak camera, roll film
25: 1884 Otto Schott - Crown glass developed lenses page 117 - flash - development of technology
25b: the instant
26: time - instant - emulsion
26b: revolution of picture-making through photography
27: different kinds of flash - Edgerton
27b: the anticipation of action
28: composition - definition - in nature
28b: photography and composition/viewfinder as container
29: subject matter and composition
29b: quantity i.e., house, city - Weegee - Model - Coney Island
30: tonality, light, camera angle - how to order these elements
30b: stages of photographic composition - composition is the result of the use of all photographic tools including the photographer - understanding and attitude brings the organization about [quote Abbott?]
31: abstract photography - Coburn,
31b: Schad - Man Ray - light - rayograms
32: Moholy-Nagy - Kepes - solarization
32b: manipulation of the negative i.e., reticulation, distortion
33: scientific photography has made visible the unseen - - Talbot, electron microscope, astronomy
33b: telescope, aerial photography
34: [blank]
34b: aerial, solarization
35: painting on canvas, representationalism, abstraction, non-objective
35b-36: [blank]
36b: painters as photographers, Cezanne, surrealism,
37-39: Moholy-Nagy, Man Ray "photography is not an art" - - Siskind from introduction to book - reference to Aperture 7:2 1959 Anton Ehrenzweig "Psychoanalysis of artistic vision and learning" quoted extensively
39b: abstraction
40-40b: introduction to photography
41: introduction to photography continued, naive photography, development of art
41b: camera as machine
42: uses of photography, fashion, education, etc.
42b: history of photography, da Vinci
43: scientific knowledge in the prehistory of photography
43b: scientific knowledge in the prehistory of photography - - Wedgwood
44: Daguerre
44b: scientific knowledge in the prehistory of photography - and process
45: scientific knowledge in the prehistory of photography - - to explain process and impact of daguerreotype
45b: spread of photography and professional roots
46: evolution of technology
46b: Eastman Kodak technology
47: Leica invention
47b: the amateur in photography technique versus expression
48: the camera and the eye
48b: light - number one tool in photography - science - - radiant energy
49: light waves - wavelengths
49b: prism - refraction
50: source of light for our planet - cosmic understanding of light
50b: learning to perceive light
51: continuation of discussion of light - nuances of light and shadow - reflections
51b: indirect light - light and printing - effects of light on different surfaces, eg., glass, metal
52: daguerreotype
52b: exposure
53-53b: [blank]
54: introduction to advanced photography - always being compared to other visual arts - emphasize that this image is produced by very specific medium made possible through science and technology - brings new seeing, feeling, and understanding of life
54b: telephone number and address of Seymour Jacobs - telephone number of Joyce Jaffe

insert 1: composition - definition

insert 1b: [blank]

insert 2: composition - determined by the viewfinder

insert 2b: [blank]

insert 3: composition - the image of life projected through the lens on the emulsion

insert 3b: [blank]

insert 4: selection of subject and limitation of rectangle and square

insert 4b: [blank]

insert 5: one house, many houses, city

insert 6: how is the photographer to select his image? - by connecting by sensing, by feeling, by understanding, the meaning and significance of life around, its order and rhythm

insert 6b: [blank]

insert 7: use all the tools of the medium - let subject matter fall into place

insert 7b: [blank]

insert 8: composing is not shifting subject matter around to make it look better - the picture makes itself

insert 8b: [blank]

insert 9: composition the result of all the tools of the medium including the photographer - understanding and attitude brings it about

insert 9b: [blank]

LM.AR6.NOTE12 Notebook 12. - date?. - front cover detached; back cover intact; front and back covers brown; spiral bound; 8 1/2 x 7 inches; 35 sheets; 31 sheets used.
1-1b: composition of paper emulsion, contact paper, enlarging paper
2: filters, chemicals for processing paper
2b: optics - description of how image is formed on film, light
3: refraction
3b: prism - description of refracted light [diagrams]
4: lenses and light [written partly in French]
4b: lens and focal length [additional material in French]
5: lenses: concave, convex
5b: light sensitivity of emulsion - paper
6: light sensitivity of emulsion - paper ["German" explanation]
6b: how an enlarger works [diagram]
7: cross-section of physical composition of film - light-sensitive nature of film
7b: developing film
8: terminology of over- and under-exposed film
8b: light, how light travels
9: how light travels through a lens and how we focus
9b: [diagram of focusing] light waves
10: [blank]
10b-11: developing chemicals
11b: process of developing film or paper
12: hardening agent
12b: enlarger and how it works - steps involved in enlarging
13: inserted page - 12 sessions on photography - evolution of image making - defence of photography
13b: [diagrams] people, trucks, spiral - the importance of the image and the capacity to see
14: sensitivity of emulsion
14b: action of light on the emulsion
15: philosophy about learning to read a photograph - tools of photography - light, emulsion, exposure, development, printing, composition, camera angle, intelligence, perception, emotion, and speed
15b: this means: mechanics, optics, physics, chemistry - - technique and expression - argues for a holistic point of view technique and expression
16: camera as first machine used in art
16b: enlarging is not just to make a larger picture - composition is not standardized rules but camera angle, etc.
17: enlarging - different formats and proportions - active enlarging is an act of contemplation for photographer: "he can change not only what he missed but what the taking of the picture cannot produce for instance action"
17b: why photography is a powerful form of expression - enlarger
18: selective capacity of the enlarger - use enlarger to show you how to photograph with the camera - enlarger stimulates understanding
18b: construction of the enlarger
19: what it means to see - relationship between the medium and the eye - education - emotional reactions - character structure - limitation to freedom of creativity
19b: conventions in photography - importance of photographer's character - convention dictated by who we are
20: nature of photography - break out of familiar and explore what we do not know - example of photographing a clock - the object - how does a child see? how do we get corrupted?
20b: individualism in photography - camera is not at all objective - relationship of camera and photographer
21: human vision - perception - human hands just a tripod - personal imprint of our gestures onto the camera image - even with most imperceptible personal characteristic - everybody produces something different - sensitivity of photographer - most photographs display conventional prejudices
21: human vision - perception - human hands just a tripod - personal imprint of our gestures onto the camera image - even with most imperceptible personal characteristic - everybody produces something different - sensitivity of photographer - most photographs display conventional prejudices
21b: most photographs are driven by routine - this tells us something about our civilization - tells us about the way we are educated and influenced - this convention stops us to see the means to react with our body and mind
22: sensitivity of the photographer is not only philosophical but is also concrete because it influences everything - it is the number one tool for anyone intending to be a photographer - it comes before anything else
22b: introduction to seeing in photography - what is photography about and what it means to see
23: pervasiveness of photographs - demands of commercialism - physical condition of the eye - surroundings, taste, aesthetics - style of beauty
23b: subject matter is nature and man-made objects - do we photograph what we know or what we don't know? symposium drawings - [doodles] - musical staff head of a woman - to deeply [understand] oneself means to be part of the whole - when to be
24: oneself does not mean to be part of the whole means to be sick in [French] - where the eyes perceive the senses function too
24b: what choices do photographers have? lens/angle, position of the camera
25: free choice - light - we choose film, paper, chemicals, diaphragm, the instant sharpness and unsharpness
25b: movement, mood, choice of how we will deal with background light - the mood is the right moment of movement - relationship of things to each other - composition - choice comes by sensing
26: fine-grain developers - different kinds of developers - use of flash
26b: origins of the flash bulb - Ostermeier
27: to express technique is to produce the photographic image - you can't be a photographer by learning technique alone
27b: the photographer is what is important - the photo league - 15 years ago I came the photo league - talking, analysis, discussion - has advantages - but be careful with it because it will not make you produce as an action in itself
28: the most important thing is to train to see - seeing is the result of working not talking - working in photography means train your eye, nerves, body - I have one more way to train myself - against fear, against routine
28b: questions: why is the picture reversed - 12 important questions regarding technique and equipment that Model attempted to answer in this course
29: enlarging important for seeing detail - part of negative - technical information on enlarging
29b: tilting
30: qualities of light - how to maintain your negatives - different kinds of paper
30b-35: [blank]
35b: Chicago Photochemical Products
LM.AR6.NOTE13 Notebook 13. - date?. - front and back covers intact; front and back covers mottled blue; spiral bound; 9 x 6 1/4 inches; 80 sheets; 14 sheets used.
1: perspective - camera obscura - history
1b: [blank]
2: perspective - camera obscura
2b-3b: [blank]
4: perspective - phenomenon of appearance - train track - a cube
4b: [blank]
5: perspective - illusionism
5b: [blank]
6: binocular vision - personal perception of space - - illusionism of three-dimensional object projected onto a two-dimensional surface - projection of the object on the surface occurs in a fraction of time
6b: [blank]
7: painting and photography share problem of three dimensions
7b: [blank]
8: 1981-1982 [financial breakdown]
8b-9b: [blank]
10: [financial breakdown]
10b: [blank]
11: [financial breakdown]
11b: [blank]
12: [financial breakdown]
12b: [blank]
13: [financial breakdown, including private teaching]
13b-80: [blank]
80b: 1954/00
LM.AR6.NOTE14 Notebook 14. - date?. - front and back covers intact; front and back covers mottled red; spiral bound; 9 x 6 1/4 inches; 67 sheets; 67 sheets used.
1: subject matter - either man-made or natural - no limit "the world is our stage" - photography comes closest to the eye image
1b-2: [blank]
2b: painting and photography
3: invention of photography - inventions related to photography - fields using photography
3b: photography as propaganda - in the school, home, advertising, movies, television, and E.S.P.
4: continuation of its usage - also form of expression of human understanding and connection with life between themselves and other human beings - camera plays a small but very important part
4b: photography deals with optics, chemistry, physics - - training and experiences required - basic course - be acquainted with the camera - study of the image
5: study of the image - in the beginning getting acquainted with craft - prehistoric and Egyptian times
5b: Roman, Greek, Renaissance periods
6: important to realize that there are no rules and regulations - outdated laws, taboos - routine - no preconceived ideas - there is the true and the false
6b: to be free is not to be sloppy - labour versus talent
7: imitation is a disrespect
7b: [blank]
8: history of image-making
8b: illustration, documentation, communication - E.S.P. - basic image of movies and television - human beings expressing their understanding and connection
9: basic requirements for photography
9b-10b: study of photography - history of image-making
11: sources for originality - difficult because no thermometers
11b: [blank]
12: millions of years to discover photography - nothing without it
12b-13: difference between basic and advanced courses
13b: [blank]
14: strong personalities - intensification [doodles] photograph makes itself strongest types - glamour
14b: [blank]
15: slide lecture introduction [?]
15b: see: subject matter
16: lecture - five points - (1) what do I know; (2) subject matter differs; (3) how I became a photographer; (4) massive forms - intensification magnification; (5) excessive subject matter - Riis, Palfi, photojournalism, Eliot Porter, Walker Evans - half-conscious, half not conscious - people, window reflections, running legs, glamour
16b: [blank]
17: people, windows, glamour - nothing is planned it works by attraction - glamour project
17b-18: [blank]
18b: slide lecture
19: lecture - introduction again - difficult to describe oneself
19b: physically, not psychologically - the subconscious
20: slide lecture - nothing that hasn't been photographed - photography as ideological weapon
20b: continuation of lecture
21-21b: [blank]
22-23b: photojournalism
24-25: photography and printing press - photojournalism
25b: photojournalism - photo essay
26: three dimensions versus two dimensions
26b: camera-eye relationship - differences between camera and eye - perspective
27: perspective - Leonardo - railroads
27b: perspective
28: binocular vision
28b: binocular vision - effect of light on paper and film
29: in photography the third dimension is resolved with every tool [doodles]
29b: [doodles]
30: eye and camera similarity - differences
30b: perspective - cube - illusionism
31: how we see in space and time - planes separated by distance
31b: depth is illusion
32: camera versus eye - perception of depth
32b: three dimensions - all tools come into play
33: light, shadow, and object
33b-35: perception of objects in changing light - light as radiant energy - physics of light
35b: photography and light differ - compare Abbott, Brandt, Levinstein, and myself
36: portraiture lighting conditions
36b-37b: [blank]
38: [list of cameras and light meters belonging to her?] in Manufacturing Bank, 6th Avenue
38b: [blank]
39: [list of cameras in Chase Manhatten Bank, 23rd Street at 5th Avenue]
39b: [contents of] wallet: birth certificate, marriage [?], old passport - Guggenheim awards - invitation to White House
40: introduction - first semester October 16th - evolution of the photographic image
40b: uses of photography
41: basic components of photographic medium - study of photography - basic, semi-advanced, and advanced
41b: photography as medium of individual expression - [doodles]
42: early image-making - leading up to photography -
42b: principle of camera obscura
43: art free, open to constant change - doing away with outdated concepts - no rules - -
43b: free = not sloppy - importance of working from life - developing own vision
44: subject matter - photographic image and the image of the eye - early response to photography - being both factual and miraculous
44b: thanks to painters, photographic image was declared unartistic, unaesthetical, mechanical, and inferior to other images
45: subject matter - selection - dependence on photographer - select through attraction or contemplation - other photographers think about it, plan and then start to work - projects - Diane, Cartier, Marion Palfi, Duane Michals, Riis, poverty, Dorothea Lange, farm administration, Evans, American photojournalism
45b: [blank]
46: photography as investigative and illustrational medium, propaganda, publicity
46b: relationship between photographer and subject - photographers identification with subject - how to distinguish between work that is good and original and work that isn't - glamour, beauty, sex - "in focus years of out
47: of focus" (Brodovitch) - pictorialism - imitation, therefore destructive - be true to yourself
47b: privacy - the loner - what is photographed - social conditions, wars, pro- contra-discrimination for or against, advertising, lying, truth - ideas put into use and misuse - photography as propaganda
48: portraits are the likeness, essence of a person - - scientific photography leads into exploration - selection of subject matter can reveal the photographer - Duane Michals - all you can photograph is nothing
48b: [blank]
49: three dimensions versus two dimensions - camera image versus image of the eye - perspective
49b: Leonardo and the camera obscura
50: three-dimensional space projected onto two-dimensional space - railroad tracks, the cube
50b: perspective and illusion
51: binocular vision - reflected light
51b: [blank]
52: illusion - living space - eyes wander - every tool is used incorporating two dimensions into three dimensions - always a problem in painting and photography
52b: [blank]
53: number one tool in black-and-white photograph is light and shadow - reflected light
53b: see house in changing light
54: other ways to look at light - main source of light is sun
54b: lighting for portraits?
55: number one tool - light - changes of light - mood
55b: dispersion - source of light
56: introduction - evolution of image-making
56b: uses of photography
57: connecting with life, self, and others through camera - - great experience to perform - photography needs special training
57b: light is the number one tool in photography - watch a tree or a house in changing light - light as radiant energy
58: visible spectrum - white light
58b: dispersion - light ray going through medium of different density changes direction - importance of light - forces of darkness
59: light identified with life spirit - dark with evil and death - incident light
59b: light creating form - ultraviolet light
60-65: [blank]
65b-67b: [written upside down - starting on 67b, reading back to 65b] - three dimensions versus two dimensions
67: three dimensions versus two dimensions - optical perception - focus - -
66b: three dimensions versus two dimensions - phenomenon of appearance - cube and railroad - perspective
66: the reversal of the image in the camera
65b: the eye image and the image of the camera - close but differences
LM.AR6.NOTE15 Notebook 15. - date ?. - front and back covers intact; front and back covers mottled green; spiral bound; 9 x 6 1/4 inches; 104 sheets; 104 sheets used.
on recto of blue flyleaf: "Evsa Model" [in Lisette's handwriting]
1: what is the origin of the image? - Evsa Model - votive images - history of art
1b-2: [blank]
2b: photography - eye image - fantasy versus reality - - fashion conditioning - uses of photography
3: categories of photography
3b: privacy - perception - problems of fear and the unknown - art encompasses an audience
4: Schönberg: (1) sequences - assignment; (2) print quality - Ansel's letter; (3) field trip; (4) in and out of focus; (5) abstract photography; (6) objective, subjective Goethe, Nancy, S.F. photography [doodles]
4b: [blank]
5: different kinds of 19th century photo-engraving methods
5b: halftone
6: Crimean War photography - history of photojournalism
6b: Luce
7: photography influenced by painting - photojournalism
7b: news photography - photojournalism - Salomon - Life magazine
8: subject matter
8b: realism of photography versus art
9: subject matter in photography - LM selects by attraction - like by a magnet - and then I don't question or hesitate - others think in advance what subject matter they want - study them and decide upon, research, and go to work, for example: Diane, Cartier, Palfi - civil rights
9b: Riis: poetry, Dorothea Lange, farmers' condition, Walker Evans - photography as social documentary - photographer's obsession, for example Capa, war, Diane, but it is always the photographer's relationship to the subject - what it takes is interest and passion and endless patience - not ambition to succeed fast
10: photography as mass media - mass production of photographers - difficulty of making a living through photography - photography as a way of life - photography as a way of understanding ourselves and life on this conflicting planet on which we are living
10b: the evolution of the photographic image
11: photography as mass industry - the pervasiveness of the photographic image
11b: the immensity of the medium - appearance in museums, galleries - photography as an art form - humans expressing, understanding, and connecting with life
12: photography deals with optics, physics, chemistry, mechanics - basic versus elementary and advanced courses
12b: difference between painting and photography is advanced - study of photography starts with the camera - photography starts with the projection of the photographer into the image
13: importance of technique - images are not new - history of image-making
13b: history of photographic image from camera obscura - no rules or regulations
14: no laws, etc. - there is a true and a false - no thermometer - only instinct, intuition, and awareness
14b: talent can be learned - just as technique can be - - fast success, fast results, money, glamour, stardom, lead to emotional disaster - Schönberg, Picasso imitate other people's vision because it is successful
15: more advanced = more basic and more elemental - often we find this quality in children - and then again but very rarely in the same innocence in real artists - exploration, stumbling, versus accumulation of information
15b: [blank]
16: three dimensions versus two dimensions - camera eye versus the eye - perspective
16b: perspective and the camera obscura - appearance versus reality
17: railroad and cube - illusion and perspective
17b: perspective and space
18: two-dimensional and three-dimensional perceptions
18b: illusionism
19: composition of emulsion
19b: emulsion
20: description of speed of emulsion
20b: description of physical make-up of film
21: exposure and chemical development
21b: exposure and relationship to light and time
22: physical and chemical reactions on film relative to the subject
22b: light and exposure
23: light is the number one tool in photography - image formed by light and shadow
23b: science says light is radiant energy
24: the visible spectrum
24b: illustrated description of how light travels
25: light, symbolically and physically
25b: spirit, darkness, evil, death - different kinds of light conditions personal choice of photographer
26: artificial light - there is a difference between being free and being sloppy
26b: promotes encountering new subject matter as enriching the medium - criticizes the knowledge of professionals in the field
27: takes an anti-intellectual stand - these belong in other fields - doing versus talking - professional non-doers
27b: force subject matter - photography = eye - importance of selection
28: intuition - subject matter - then planning - some study then photograph
28b: photography is always in relation to something - either connection or disconnection
29: light - its composition
29b: scientific analysis of light
30: visible spectrum - explanation
30b: refraction - diagrams
31: illumination - sun symbolic meaning of sun and darkness
31b: light and shadow as a medium of expressing feeling and understanding - different methods of lighting
32: light sources - in portraiture - facial features
32b-33: [blank]
33b: light sources
34: light sources and outdoor lighting
34b: [blank]
35: different ways of lighting
35b: [blank]
36: thousands of times man makes images of himself - how? paintings, drawings, sculpture, and photography - in the intimacy of his home or in public life and places - he has shown himself in simple everyday portraits to be remembered only by his family or he has shown himself with all the insignia of status and dignity
36b: in this self-image he pointed out how to believe, how to move - how a prince should look - or a general, or bourgeois - but when we observe these images we can see something strange: that there is a conflict, a tension, very rarely do human beings see this real face
37: and there is a conflict between the individual and the general aspects - mostly even in individual portraits there is a great deal of the general - in Egyptian art we can see that the pharaoh is more half god than individual - what was shown in history - general or personal approach - Greeks - gods in human beings
37b: Rousseau's personal power, drive, brutality, vanity, tiredness - Middle Ages - portraits individual but it is important to be a saint and a prophet - popular martyrs - Gothic - Renaissance - portraits - Rembrandt, Hals, lots of general . . .
38: man has to hide not out of shame - insecurity - to belong to something general - lasting - church, military, community, establishment - his clothes are part of belonging to a class - poverty, status, Catholicism
38b: suffering, Christ - literature follows - Victor Hugo, Zola, fighting social conditions, causes - today, hippies, rags, poverty, dirt, eccentricity - Victorian, modern, sex, equality of men in clothes and looks - glamour
39: last session - images conditioned - status versus individual image in all visual arts - objective versus subjective - Goethe, Abbott, Sanders, Salomon, Cartier, Atget, Riis, versus . . . Brodovitch, Avedon, Buttfield, Avedon's father - composition - conclusion - use of tools, light, perspective, composition, printing, developing - instinctive original means not subjective - contrary
39b: explore truth - sloppy is not genius - neurosis is not an individual picture
40: [blank]
40b: photography - working, exploring life - relation to life includes ourselves and connecting through the medium, not just talking or indulging in philosophy and group therapy - psychology is all over not invented by Freud or therapy
41: when two people meet in the street, working together, psychology comes into action - we will try to find out who photographs what and how - how much is conditioned, imitated, derivative
41b: the source of each vision - exists mostly covered up - is not the real reason millions of people pick up the camera - to find her - - or himself - if one can get something universal in an individual way or essence - then moving closer
42: advanced - study of image - aesthetics - photographer starts with camera - projection of photographer with image - prehistory - stones - catacombs - Egyptians, Greeks, Renaissance
42b: when we have selected the subject - we deal with three dimension into two - perspective - instant - spots - form - what is called composition - how light is used - at the same time intuition and intelligence - free and disciplined - the work comes from learning not use of will power - how deeply we go into subject matter
43: not flip over it - it is fragmented - observed - project - every object, house, window all clothes belong to an era - one reason old photographs or antiques are so fascinating - don't overlook significance of everything man-made - nature - - observing macro - , microphotography - both facts, sensitize, to look, see, be aware "my quotation"
43b: whatever is photographed the whole world is in an example - little girl - part = whole
44: it took man or humanity thousands of years to discover and to invent photography - a tremendous technological achievement - photography is a huge industry based on mass production - -
44b: photography plays an important part in E.S.P. - ghost pictures - photography is also a form of art - human beings expressing their understanding of the world through the camera - photography deals with light, chemicals, mechanics, physics - and the photographer needs special and serious training and great experience
45: camera beginning - knowing the tools - starts with knowledge of tools - starts with the projection of the photographer into the image - a new very different image from painting or completely different aesthetics - well understood - history of image-making
45b: modern abstract imitation of photography of the other image - do away with regulations and rules - with routing nobody can see what can be revealed or what is concealed - what has to be trained is sensitivity and intuition - to recognize the true from the false, the neurotic self-centred photographer from reality and truth
46: talent - children's painting - techniques advanced and basic - exploration not application - seeing from the vision to reality - from life to image
46b: subject matter - scientific tool, human relations tool, how do we select? - for war against human conditions, justice, propaganda - the camera says the truth and lies
47: condensed - the eye - the eye developed originally as a tool of perception - for survival - the eye enabled man to fish, to hunt, to defend himself - the evolution of the eye
47b: always an awareness of light and dark - continuation of the evolution of the eye
48: producing light images by receptor cells - lens system - evolution of sight
48b: amoeba - evolution of sight
49: evolution of sight - insects
49b: evolution of sight - vertebrates
50: the lens, the retina, muscles
50b: the eye - primates
51: the eye - rods and cones
51b: colour vision - eye, camera
52: eye, camera
52b: more similarity beyond optics - chemistry - eye, camera
53: cones for bright light - rods for dim light
53b: light - in black-and-white photography subjects and objects are nothing but light and shadow - form the image on the emulsion - watch a house
54: science says - physics of light - visible spectrum
54b: the visible spectrum - dispersion
55: other phenomenon - light passing through objects changes direction
55b: another way of looking at light - the sun rises and goes down - periodicity
56: gods of light - forces of darkness - light is identified with life and spirit
56b: express and reveal through light and shadow - - photographers use light in different ways - Cartier, Abbott, Bill Brandt, Walker Evans
57: artificial light - photographers move several lights around the model
57b: beginning in complete darkness, giving shape and form
58: the hidden face - thousands of times did man make images of himself - in this self-imagery he always pointed out again and again in which way to behave or move
58b: how a prince has to look, or a general, or a bourgeois - human beings very rarely let their inner real face be seen - and in the history of man it comes to a tension between the individual and the general appearance and mostly even the individual aspect in images retains a great deal of general portraiture
59: already in Egyptian art we notice tension between the individual self and the hiding of the self - what in the course of history was stronger - the personal or the general aspect? the Greeks avoided the individual aspect - instead they showed their gods in form of human beings - the Romans are personal: vanity, brutality, corruption - power drive comes through
59b: the Middle Ages - Giotto has objective images - it is not important that one is this or that way - important that he is saint, prophet, or pope - Gothic art - there is society - community art in which clothes, behaviour, movement are represented
60: this is more important than the individual - the personal face - in the Renaissance there is the individual portrait - high status is shown, individualization is rare - Tizau [Tissot?], Hals, Rembrandt - had developed knowledge of human nature and the power to express it - have a great deal of conventionality
60b: completely open images of man like Van Gogh, Kokoschka . . . are shocking when people run or . . . man wants to hide his face - the instability of passing by of time - what remains - he becomes part of religious community - in other works of the establishment
61 the accepted, the ethical - from the glaciers of solitude he flees into the warmth of family life - therefore he makes you acquainted with his work, activities, to have a right of public acclaim
61b: man does not hide his individual face out of shame, but out of need of security - conventions - Christ the portrait of the Middle Ages - poverty, unhappiness, misery, in this world for the first time
62: glamorized - 19th century literature - when we look at our time is it different? - fashion, glamour, Hollywood - the hippies look alike, Hollywood men and women look alike - sex photographs the same - people wearing rags, being unwashed, wild beards, men dressed like women
62b: the general not the individual - portrait of the executive, society, etc.
63: photojournalism - traced books back to the penny magazine in London - eight years before Daguerre - in 1832 came out with the announcement of photography - painters took over - at the same time another kind of photography - motivation - information rather than optics
63b: these are the chroniclers - the beginning of news photography - 1840 - Morse - Flaubert, Maxime Du Camp - journalists without a journal
64: took humanity thousands of years to invent photography - no human activity without photography
64b: space, under the ocean, for propaganda - sociology - - illustration, documentation, photography the basic image of movies and television - immensity of medium
65: see photography - museums, galleries, exhibitions, books, collectors - it is considered art - human beings use their new medium to express their relation with others and themselves - this is the part of photography we are concerned with - a small part - important - photography deals with optics, physics, mechanics, chemistry
65b: photographer needs special training and great experience - study divided - intermediary to get acquainted with the camera - how to first develop a print - the tools - to get acquainted with camera - the study of the image in photography is unique, different from the other arts
66: new aspect for image completely new vision developed - it is not as black and white, defined - from beginning we express and to the [end] we learn the tools - image-making is not new
66b: Egypt: painting, drawing, sculpting, with their exceptional vision, no misunderstanding; Greeks: human body specific proportions; Renaissance: introducing perspective; modern painting, Impressionism, abstract: dealing with form and shape
67: connected with surface - image done with eye, hands, muscle - 1820 - first photograph made with a machine - Leonardo observes - when it comes to any art form it is important to realize that there is no such thing as
67b: rules and regulations - outdated laws - nobody can tell you what to reveal or what to conceal - the field of human activity is free - not anything goes - real and false - we have to go by senses - a kind of a built - in knowledge - free is not sloppy
68: or playing games - technique - talent - trained in both - no division - accumulation, explanation - Schönberg, Picasso - ambition - success - imitations, influence
68b: [blank]
69: children's paintings - balance harmony, universe - - put negative in enlarger, look how many images you can find - cropping - negatives in stiff shapes - 641 5th Ave - Eubeuse 51st 23E [doodles]
69b: [blank]
70: when point at subject, object, through viewfinder and ground glass we face another problem - composition - word used in painting, sculpture, drawing, music, chemistry, etc. - basically it means put together, combine, organize, arrange in certain order - and this is not an isolated condition - nature day, night, seasons, all activities of work organized - we deal with a surface [drawing of a square and a rectangle]
70b: image of life comes through - rectangle = physical construction - geometry - possibilities infinite [doodles] - image of life - what do we see? - we feel limited by . . . look, we shall overcome - how to select
71: how in this ocean of [images do we select] - combining feeling, understanding the significance and using all of the tools - we don't construct, put together, calculate - let it fall into place
71b: wherever we point our lens at subject, object, look through viewfinder ground glass - observe - composition
72: back to photography - dealing with the rectangle - image of life - what do we see? cityscapes, Statue of Liberty, houses, people illuminated by moving in a certain light
72b: one notes limitation - one often lost in an ocean of subjects - we can photograph one house, group, street, city - one object a small part of it - how to select - being sensitive to feeling, being, understanding
73: being aware of significance - using all tools of the medium - exposure, developing - we let subject matter fall into place instead of calculating its best effect
73b: picture makes itself - we don't shift subject matter around to make a better composition - it looks better, more effective - subject, object in space and light - through the use of the tools are brought together in a new order - the photographer needs understanding and attitude to bring it about - what you feel and say in terms of photography
74: the image in photography comes the closest of all man-made images to how we see - because of perspective - the strange thing is man has always seen in perspective but
74b: without being able to reproduce this vision in his images, drawings, paintings - only in the Renaissance when Leonardo not only observed but . . . perspective became the vision in the visual - art totally accepted and everything else was rejected until modern painting came along instead
75: since man has developed an internal lens system we see in perspective a phenomenon of appearance - we see what we know does not exist - railroad tracks - cube
75b: there are many explanations to explain perspective scientifically
76: lines converging at one point - vanishing point - - but we see with two lenses and the camera sees with one lens - we see in space and time
76b: three dimensions onto two dimensions - what happens to the other dimension? - depth? - the third dimension is an illusion
77: how to incorporate the third dimension can make or break the picture - all tools of photography come into action - everything seen in space is flattened on a surface
77b-78: [blank]
78b: from all images produced by man, the photograph comes closest to what we see - similarity and differences between the eye and the camera
79: perspective - camera obscura
79b: three dimensions versus two dimensions
80: number one tool in photography is light - science says light = radiant energy
80b: visible spectrum - dispersion
81: other way of seeing light - main source of light on this planet is the sun - rises and goes down - this change called periodicity - god of light and forces of the dark
81b: light identified with life - darkness with evil - different photographers use light differently
82: source of illumination = sun one of the most important conditions for development and understanding of the world
82b: is the number one tool - have you ever seen a tree under 24 hours of changing light? the infinite aspects and moods from dawn to sunset
83: visible spectrum - light passing through a prism - dispersion
83b: the main source of illumination is the sun - periodicity - change of light to darkness - understanding the world -
84: one of the most important conditions of the development of the evolution and understanding of the world - light and darkness
84b: light = sun and spirit - darkness = danger even death - natural light and studio light
85: number one tool in black-and-white photography is light and shadow - dawn to sunset - expressive aspects - mood - science another way of looking at light
85b: not to look too much how other people photograph, to look at life - your subject matter - what life is all about - not little pieces or fragments that make a good picture
86: we're substantial, elemental, meaningful - instant misused - not looking, using not projecting neuroses and all personal problems - with photography the opposite [doodles]
86b: [blank]
87: introduction - it took thousands of years to discover, to invent photography
87b: photographs used in politics, for war, against war, for peace, in schools - realize the immensity of this medium - photography is an art which means human beings exploring their understanding and connection with life and with other human beings - a new instrument - a new vision
88: the camera - photographer deals with optics, mechanics, chemistry, physics - usually the photographer needs special training
88b: study usually divided into basic, intermediate, and advanced courses - to handle all the tools belongs to a basic course - the study of the image in photography - understanding its entirely different structure - be aware of its new aspect and expression - that this new visual medium has brought a new world and new understanding of life - an advanced course
89: a basic course makes us acquainted with the tools to be used - photography starts with the projection of the photographer - his understanding of life and himself into the picture - we are no longer concerned with a good or bad print but the print for what is unintended to be conveyed
89b: images not new - they were around for millions of years - we know prehistoric drawings and paintings - Greeks using human bodies and specific proportions - Renaissance
90: modern painting - Impressionistic - abstract painting - also painting from nature - non-objective painting - discarding subject matter - dealing with surface and forms in connection with space and time - 1820 the first photograph made - the instrument of the new picture making was a machine - the camera - reflected light form object or subject - camera obscura
90b: camera obscura
91 when it comes to a medium of art it is important that we realize that there are no rules or regulations - no preconceived ideas - our task is to do away with the presumption that we know or can dictate how to do or what can be revealed or concealed
91b: this field of human activity is free - open to constant change - there is the true and there is the false - originality versus false
92: knowledge is not right word - instinct - talent is God-given - you have it or you don't - awareness sensitivity can be cultivated, which is talent, and can come into existence and grow - not by accumulation of information - over there applying it - no division - Schönberg - success - Picasso - photograph not inspired by life, its a direct image of life - other people's work
92b: infinity - basic versus advanced
93: number one tool is light - thousands of years to discover - tremendous achievement - giant industry
93b: document, illustrate, communication, social conditions, museums, immensity of medium
94: special training - great experience - camera obscura
94b: be open to change - versus true/false - phony - teacher, experience - division, confidence, imitation, conditioned - life is the force
95: subject matter - the problem of privacy - what can and what cannot be photographed - what we see (practical to orient ourselves) - the visible world is transformed - subconscious - handwriting, forms, lines, tones, light - Cartier: silver light - what is called style - complex transformation - projection through subject matter -
95b: everything can be abused - instinct - Duane Michals - all you should do is to photograph nothing - new subject matter: sex, nudity, self-portraits - subject matter - surrealism - what - from what to how - that may be the key - form may lead into the expression . . . "weltbild" conception of the world or life - serves photojournalism
96: projection into everything - or only into certain subjects - certain forms, shapes, light - geometrical, biological - changing nothing from eye view, revealing other problems, aspects - concentration
96b: [blank]
97: we all know that there is a great similarity between the image of the eye and the camera - similarity and differences
97b-98b: [blank]
99: examine closeness of eye vision and camera vision - - perspective
99b: Leonardo da Vinci - perspective - deals with phenomenon of appearance - railroad tracks -
100: lines meeting vanishing point - perspective - seeing in space and time
100b: in living space eyes wander - on a surface whole image project in one fraction of time and seen with one fraction of time as a unit - important difference - three dimensions versus two dimensions
101: [blank]
101b: Leonardo - perspective - similarities and differences between the eye and the camera
102: with eye three dimensions - describe room - focus, unfocus - in space different objects separated by different distances
102b: incorporate three dimensions on two = great problem
103: three dimensions versus two dimensions - perspective
103b: infrared filters - deep red almost black - filter holds back almost all visible light, lets only infrared - film - sensitivity extends to infrared rays of spectrum - used with infrared filter
104:

Assignments:

1. photograph something never done before

2. close and far

3. light

4. perspective explore

5. a face not conventional

6. self - portrait

7. instant (speed)

8. abstract

9. sequence

10. nature in New York

11. animals, zoo, people and pets

12. groups of people, crowds

13. statues

14. objects unanimated

15. museums

16. traffic vibrations of big city - 1976

17. Wall Street skyscrapers

104b: Brahmins and bully boys - G. Frank Radway's Boston Album - photographs collected with an introduction and narrative by Stephen Halpert and Brenda Halpert - Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1973 - 68 shops incorporated - corporate seal 1971, New York
LM.AR6.NOTE16 Notebook 16. - date? - front and back covers intact; front cover green-blue; back cover buff-coloured; spiral bound; 8 1/2 x 7 inches; 10 sheets; 10 sheets used.
1: tensor bandage, attached clip, four-inch bandage
1b: [blank]
2: took humanity thousands of years to discover and to invent photography
2b: pictures and images not new - so far images produced by hand - it is important to realize that in any art there are no rules or regulations
3: everybody has talent - always learning from everywhere and not only courses - other people, works, etc. - eye developed originally as a tool of perception for survival - to think, hunt, defend - evolution of the eye
3b: evolution of the eye - different eyes for different creatures
4: 272-9899 (403) - eyeball spherical body - eyelids - primates - different sensitivities in different eyes
4b: analogy - eye/camera - rods and cones
5: it took humanity thousands of years to discover and invent photography - a tremendous technological achievement
5b: study of photography usually divided into basic and advanced
6: the study of photography starts with the camera, with the projection of the photographer into the image
6b: the one using is a physical vehicle for the expression - important to realize no rules or regulations
7: in other words art is an eternal exploration which does not mean that everything goes - talent - some feel it is God-given - teaching - not to imitate, not to be in awe of what others do - to love, to like it yes - but to rely on our own capacity for feeling - to be independent and self-reliant - does not mean one does not have to learn on the way - learning has no end and one can learn from everyone
7b: thousands of years to discover photography
8: history of subject matter - in 1873 Vogel in Berlin discovers dyes - one adds to the emulsion so that . . . - so far only sensitive to blue are now sensitive to other colours (except for red) - silver bromide particles are dyed: the dyes form a kind of colour filter around the silver bromide molecule and wall on certain parts of light - thus orthochromatic plates came into existence - only years [later] was the orthochromatic material commercialized and the great mass of amateur photographers has come into existence - photography can be made available to the masses; celluloid band, long rubber-covered white emulsion - the first roll film camera - KODAK
8b: (1) wherever we point the camera, problem situation - composition; (2) this work not only used for photography - used for painting, sculpture, music, chemistry, many other activities; (3) it means to put together, combine wording in a certain order; (4) this again is not an isolated situation - nature = composition - night and day - cycle of the moon - subject matter beyond how it is done - it is mine - some people work instinctively, they don't know why and don't want to know [half of the page covered in doodles]
9: the camera gets smaller, the lens larger, better, more light-sensitive - in 1824 the smallest handiest camera was made by Oskar Barnack - the Leica - Barnack made home movies before the First World War - no light meter available - in 1929 another principle of construction came about, the Rolleiflex - twin lens ground glass - 12 pictures, 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 - the amateur is the creator of the industry and takes over
9b: then there is nothing on this planet that cannot be photographed - for the photographer, the world is his stage - subject matter is limitless - we have discussed in the first session where photography today can be seen, where it is used - respectability - for almost general purposes, whether on a huge scale - education, science, newspapers, magazines, advertising, business of all sorts - propaganda for and against peace, for war, environs, national and international purposes - but here we will try to find out mostly personal and psychological motivations and find out how much the choice of subject matter is significant to find oneself and how much this is in connection with the overall aspect of our world
10: as we know, reality is not absolute - it is culturally determined . . . the world has been rendered coherent by description - taboo [?] - everyday familiar and unfamiliar environment, or exciting and new places . . . known and unknown, truth, lies, on subject matter, abstract, my subject matter, beauty, ugliness, healthy, sick, fashion, landscape, portraits, daguerreotypes, street scenes, social conditions, 20th, 30th, 40th - now nudity, sex, toilets [doodles]
10b: film: grain; retina: grain, film: silver bromide crystals - retina, receptor cells, rods, cones; rods: dim light; cones: medium and strong light; rods and cones connected - rods: always; cones: finer grain
inside back cover: [doodles, numbers]
LM.AR6.NOTE17 Notebook 17. - date? - front and back covers intact; front and back covers buff-coloured; spiral bound; 7 3/4 x 5 inches; 21 sheets; 21 sheets used.
inside front cover: play, stop, now, stop, eyes
1: a photograph (or most photographs) is a sensitive fragile image of light - is there mostly badly reproduced - or 99% badly reproduced - put into the straightjacket of book form - I have given many courses - workshops - the unique interpretation with words of the visual - haphazard kind of thing -translation of image of eye into perceived - difficult to explain
1b: not that I feel that it is so sacrosanct - but - besides when it comes to one's own pictures it is like looking at one's self optically only - I mean and to see one's self from all angles - camera a means of detection
2: I have given many courses and workshops in the last 20 years - working with students - the immediate give and take from both sides is natural for me - when it comes to show and talk about my own photographs, I so far have refused, feeling that one sees less clearly one's own work - because also if one would have to see one's self from many different angles and distances
2b: all sides it would be almost impossible but easy for everybody else - photographs are not subject matter - but the translation of the eye image which already is an image of the subject, not subject itself but photographic image - meaning what we see in space and time is projected on two-dimensional surface in black and white
3: and through all the tools of photography, e.g., duotones, contrast, selection, etc. transformed into and entirely different image - about myself - I may venture to tell you how I became a photographer or got acquainted with photography
3b: my training was as a musician - one day in 1937 . . . it was really like . . . the photography was secondary - an accident, no interest in . . . and maybe . . .
4: the camera is our instrument of detection - we photograph what we know but also what we don't know - when I point my camera at something I am asking a question - and sometimes the photograph = the answer - I don't want to prove anything - I am the one who gets the lesson
4b: I feel that these are people of great strength and vitality, whose life experience is not held back but comes strongly to the surface of their bodies and expression - the world is not the thing and often replaces, takes one's direct perception
5: (1) it took thousands of years; (2) photography is a huge industry; (3) art form
5b: [blank]
6: photography - optics, chemistry, physics - great training - basic and advanced
6b: [blank]
7: art = to realize - no rule, regulations, outdated laws, routine, preconceived ideas
7b-8b: [blank]
9: awareness, sensing, intuition, talent
9b: security, study . . .
10: mass production, technology
10b: A [rest of page is blank]
11: thousands of years - technological development [rest of page is blank]
11b: light is the number one tool - whenever we see = light
12: thousands of years to develop, immensity of medium, art form, optics, physics, chemistry
12b: images not new - 1820 first photograph - instrument, machine, camera - Leonardo - no rules, outdated laws - talent
13: thousands of years to invent them - classes: elementary, advanced
13b: no rules or regulations - routine - free
14: (1) light number one tool in photography; (2) light and shadows; (3) have you ever watched the light and shadow changing on a tree or house at sunset?
14b: science says light is radiant energy - travels in waves or vibrations - visible spectrum
15: visible spectrum - ultraviolet - dispersion
15b: light rays going medium different density - refraction changes direction - ultraviolet has filter, keeps all colour except ultraviolet - light rays exclude all colours - flash
16: number one tool in photography: (1) in black-and-white photography the reflected light of object or subject hits the emulsion forms in light and shadow; (2) science says light = radiant energy
16b: rays, colour length, bending, infrared
17: different way of looking at light - main source of light is the sun - periodicity - gods of sun, spirit, forces of darkness
17b: light and shadow - different - different photographers
18: [top of page ripped out] science - light radiant energy - we see 400-700 visible spectrum - when light goes through prism divides
18b: [blank]
19: light number one tool in photography - reflection of object, subject, all intensities
19b: ultraviolet - refraction
20: periodicity, sun main source of illumination - gods of light, forces of darkness
20b-21: [doodles]
21b: [blank]
back cover: [doodles]
LM.AR6.NOTE18 Notebook 18. - date? - front and back covers intact; front and back covers buff-coloured; spiral bound; 7 3/4 x 5 inches; 31 sheets; 31 sheets used.
1: the image - picture-making is not new - enumerate: cave, Greeks, Renaissance - today painting: camera - images never imitation - 30 people same eyes - 30 cameras - consequence - if what eye sees is connected with photography - nervous system, intelligence, understanding - and there to use knowledge of photography, mechanics, tools, to translate this = photographer
1b: photographic image comes very close to eye image - either mechanical or disconnected fantasy - or . . . different for different photographers - association, memory, etc., the thing itself Goethe, Krishnamurti
2: characteristics of photographic image - authenticity - inherent perspective - contrast - gradation - sharpness and unsharpness, mass production, sees more than eye - three dimensions versus two - camera almost a replica of the organic eye - we see perspective - man probably has always seen that way - but did not realize it - we don't see what we know to be - converging lines
2b: seeing in time and space - on a surface the whole image is projected in one fraction of time - and then viewed if in right size and distance in one view
3: this projection in one fraction of time is responsible for the speed in photography - the instant unique to this medium - from one foot to 1,000 feet - question of perspective - there is always depth in different tones - third dimension is an illusion - natural space = deep - picture space = deep and flat
3b: speed - no speed beginning - emulsion slow - 1851 Talbot . . . on fast turning wheel - how man walks - Oliver Wendell Holmes - based on instantaneous photograph of human walking, then horse - Muybridge - Marey - human locomotion - new unbelievable aspects - a new imagery - more speed - the instant - photography art of the split second - moment captured that was never before and never will be again
4: movement, expression unseen by the eye is stopped - the now = permanent - instant of shutter mechanical - selected instant of the photographer - instant = new in the history of picture making - difference between photography and painting vision - instant reveals new world - not action shots - everything in photography = speed - shutter, lens, emulsion, chemicals, speed of photographer
4b: sixth sense of the news photographer - example of a photograph of people in a split second - unknown -composition - whenever we point our camera at something a problem arises - composition - this word is not only used for photography but other art media - painting, sculpture, drawing, music, etc., also in many human activities - it means to put together, to combine, to arrange, in a certain order to organize
5: when we look through the viewfinder we face a rectangle or a square surface - we also face an image of life projected on this surface - the rectangle and the square are merely a container - the possibilities of these rectangles and squares and surfaces are unlimited - image of life projected through the lens on the emulsion - what do we see? - nature, landscapes, ocean, cities, streets, people, illuminated by the sun moving in space in certain order or rhythm
5b: on the one side the photographer struggles with the limitation of the rectangle, the square, and surface - on the other side he struggles against the infinity of images that stream through the lens onto the emulsion - but we can see concerning the limitation that we can photograph - one house, many houses - then how in this ocean of objects and confusion is the photographer to select?
6: being able to use every tool and express it in terms of photography we bring objects, subjects in space though light, angle, and direction, etc. so that a new order of life, a photograph, is created - composition is what you feel about a subject matter and how you say it in terms of photography - Abbott - you do it this or that way not for better effect but because it says more
6b: abstract photography - in 1913 Coburn exhibits five photographs - views looking down, distorted perspective - he emphasized the abstract pattern of street, houses - he said: "It is almost as phantastic in its perspective [as] a cubist phantasy? But why should not the camera break away from the worn out conventions that in its short time of existence have begun to cramp and restrict this medium - and drain the freedom of expression which any Art must have to be alive." In 1917 Coburn produced the photograph, completely non-objective
7: photographs were made with three mirrors in a triangle - all kinds of objects glass, wood, on a table lens, projected into it - he said: "There was a time or notion the camera could not be abstract and I was out to disprove it." Shad in 1918 produced an abstraction without a camera - he laid on photographic paper flat objects, cut out paper on exposure-recorded designs like cubist collages - 1921 Man Ray - Moholy-Nagy rayograms - photograms - three-dimensional objects on paper - translucent objects
7b: shadows - texture recorded, also moving lights, moving objects, glass, sand, salt, design on glass, as variation - Moholy-Nagy found that photograms open unknown perspectives - it's the most dematerialized medium - entirely new - the photogram is closely related to abstract painting - it was created by painters - solarization - heavy negatives overexposed - printed - one grade more contrasty - light is opened (take developer off carefully so there are no streaks when held to light) - solarization was considered a technical failure
8: Man Ray used it controlled - solarization is a gross overexposure - or different exposure to light - the sensitive material begins to bleach until it is a positive - change begins at the edges - film solarized = negative when printed has dark runs on the edges - Man Ray made negative prints - reticulation - texture is introduced into emulsion through rapid changes of temperature - net-like structure - gelatin is melted, the image sags (negative) - a negative and transparent positive printed together slightly shifted - relief effect
8b-9: [blank]
9b: scientific photography - microphotography - has made the invisible visible - great beauty - 1839 Talbot could record image of the microscope - small electronic microscope - astronomy - all through photograph - telescope = camera with a mechanism - that the moving stars remain unmoved - microscope has become a camera - telescope = camera - stars exposed - put for hours on the emulsion - thousands of galaxies have been discovered that way - aerial camera - makes surface or parts of the surface of the earth visible to the eye - automatic camera makes exposures every seven inches
10: everything looks like abstract paintings or has similarity to scientific photography - one says that artists have been stimulated by scientific photographs - solarization - reversal of the image/negative or print - giving short exposure to light - sun photographed is black not white when overexposed - overexposure produces solarization of the silver chlorides - representational means - recognizable subject matter - abstracted from nature - the artist is interested in the formal aspect of the object - gives abstract or nonobjective - when the artist invents forms, lines, shapes, in connection with the rectangle
10b: two-dimensional surface - photography invented by a painter - takes over - he cannot compete with the speed, detail, likeness the photographer gives - the painter changes - Cézanne - first to abstract from nature - this leads into cubism - surrealism - Man Ray - my principle is to avoid everything forbidden - changed the optics of my lens - photography is still in prehistoric stage
11: [doodles - a cross and a heart]
11b: [blank]
12: the medium of photography deals with mechanics, physics, optics, chemistry - for this reason the study of photography
12b: how does the eye see and what is the eye? - similarities and differences between the camera and the eye - how does the image of the camera come into existence and get transformed by the inner rim of the eye, senses, etc.
13: camera is a device for researching images visible to the eye - cameras are mechanical replicas of the human eye - this organ is undoubtedly the basis of photography - without having been intentionally initiated in the eye - the eye is a light, tight, spherical, almost egg-shaped body - the inside coloured purple
13b: in front, camera: (a) a transparent lens highly curved; (b) cones or membrane that can expand and contract - the iris acting as a diaphragm, for controlling the amount and intensity of light - in the centre of the iris is an opening, the pupil - light strong, slower, etc. - behind the iris - cones - another lens - focusing device - membrane
14: retina
14b: instead of silver bromide - rods and cones
15: eye and camera - lens system - camera moving lens forward and backward - lenses control intensity - film receives images - shutter
15b: eyelid - darkroom - images produced - picture-making always present - never to imitate nature, always to express man himself and the world around him
16: 30 people with no . . . same image on return - transformed depending on intelligence, world, etc. - eye image transformed depending on person
16b: image project eye transformed - present when we look through camera - by using tools of the camera we can change - but we don't look, not aware of what we see - if we can see for ourselves
17: from beginning photographs could be reproduced - daguerreotypes were made into printing plates - different methods [description of different kinds of printing plates] - but type and photos could not be put together - type is relief -
17b: highlights depressed - chroniclers - beginning of news photography - 1840 crowd police - [18]41 Parade Linz - 1850 railroad workers, balloon invention, daguerreotypes - 1849 Flaubert and Maxime Du Camp - 1880 - first halftone process
18: economy of photography - Horgan - editor of the New York Herald - tried - but before 1889 kind of journalism - series of photographs - Civil War - Lincoln conspirators - scientist Chrevruel - but editors did not like photographs - public forced - words dominant until the First World War
18b: mass production - mass culture - everything can be photographed - E. Salomon, Ullstein, Saffranski - Luce, Life
19: show book of the world - spot news, weekly events, captions, articles, - haphazard taking of pictures - misguided camera - photographs more important than text - laboratories take over - developing and printing
19b: team - photographer + writer + researcher + art director + picture editor + editor + . . . + publisher - policy of the magazine - photographer and writer together or separate - not best picture selected, which is important for the story - problem
20: picture seen in fraction of time - words read in time and space from left to right - distance - life says good - two senses in action - seeing and hearing at different times - photographer more than eye
20b-21: [blank]
21b: rule - photographer detached - writer writes for and into photographs - new - so far picture illustrates text - word important - where, when, who - captions tell story not photograph
22: film - technology - celluloid - gelatin -
22b: chemistry of emulsion [diagram of strip of film]
23: in order to take a picture I have to select subject matter - light - I dislike people so? - photography, nature, flowers, animals - windows in and out, objects, their existence, light, not people, I have been there, I . . . it - the picture is a possession of it - Charlie Pratt
23b: [blank]
24: subject matter - the world is the stage - almost everything can be photographed - why do we photograph? - why select? - how much is true? - how much is conditioned? - imitated? - not reality but fantasy - connecting with life or escape? is there such a thing as subjective, objective, universal? we use photography to illustrate documents, events, photojournalism - or to fight for better living conditions - parades, protests, antiwar, war photography, using it as a weapon - we photograph what we like, love, hate, to promote or propagandize - saying the truth or lie
24b: advertise, publicity - without photography no computers, no space, no moon trips - we photograph what we call beauty or ugliness - we escape or contact -subject matter has its fashion - eras where nature, landscapes were etc. - eras where people came on the scene - try to understand, to communicate, destroy, or to discover or uncover social conditions - to do away with recognizable subjects or objects and deal with light, forms, shapes, texture, design, - the camera can say the truth, reveal or lie
25: portraits, likeness essence of human being - landscapes to commune with nature - generally felt human beings are one thing, nature is something else - scientific photography leads to . . .
25b: [blank]
26: composition, used in all of the arts - definition - in nature - dealing with a rectangle or a square
26b: the image of life is projected through the lens on the emulsion - this rectangle or square and surface is a physical element or geometry - possibilities are limitless - now image of life - we can see cities, landscapes, the sea, the sky, objects illuminated by the sun or artificial light - moving in space and time in a certain rhythm and order
27: photographer deals with the rectangle, square, and surface and struggles with its limitation - on the other hand we deal with the infinity of subject matter - the image of life - the image of life projected onto the camera - one object - part of it - detail so small - we can photograph ocean or sky or outer space - on a negative 35mm we can show a microbe or infinity in a split second
27b: question: how in this multitude of objects, subjects and space, light, movement is the photographer to select and organize? - sensing, feeling, understanding, consciously and unconsciously, the significance of life around us and in connection with us - and use every tool in photography to translate this living image with a photographic image
28: it rather coordinates itself - magnet - we follow what is needed - composition is what you feel about subject matter and how you say it in terms of photography - understanding and attitude bring the organization about - Abbott: (1) whenever we point the camera - composition; (2) word used for the other arts; (3) word used in human activities; (4) it means . . . (5) nature, work organized - when we look through viewfinder - rectangle, square, surface, which is a container - physical element
28b: at the same time: image of life projected through the lens - rectangle and surface = container - possibilities of the surface - image of life - limitations and other side, infinity of subject - select
29: light, angle, distance, proportion, tones, contrast, three dimensional, two dimensional - and creating another life, another order - we do not manufacture composition or the subject matter - we follow what is needed - magnet - composition = what you feel about the subject matter
29b: [blank]
30: everything = subject matter - nature as well as man-made - camera with lens: unavoidable where we point
30b: [blank]
31: different photographers - different light - phot. bad - granted - routine - new look - light sources - umbrellas - observe tools
31b: every tool = study vehicle - light - spectrum
LM.AR6.NOTE19 Notebook 19. - date? - front and back covers intact; front and back covers buff-coloured; spiral bound; 7 3/4 x 5 inches; 72 sheets; 72 sheets used.
1: light is the number one tool in photography - what we see in the image of black-and-white photographs is nothing but light and shadow - highlight to the deepest shadows - have you ever watched a house changing light over 24 hours? - science says light is radiant energy
1b: travels in waves or vibrations - visible spectrum - rays of different colours
2: visible spectrum - the separation of a white light ray is called dispersion
2b: refraction [diagram of refraction] - infrared
3: there is another way of looking at light - main source of illumination on this planet is the sun - the sun rises and goes down - periodicity
3b: gods of light and the forces of darkness - light - life - spirit - darkness with evil, danger, death - different photographers use light and shadow in many different ways - Cartier, Abbott, etc.
4: outdoor light is easily overlooked - we run after subject matter not watching the light - artificial light - light indoors - routine comes in - you can't go wrong - in fashion very diffused light reflected from umbrellas - for portraits not far from the lens - another far away from the lens
4b: the subject or . . . at an angle of 45 degrees - some photographers use different lights, push them around and or move the subject until they find a light - a movie technique . . . in producing sufficient light to then give different accents here and there - the shortcoming is instead of starting in complete darkness and with one light creating form and shape, shadows are produced by adding light on a general illumination
5: it is the photographers attitude or feeling of light that gives the expression - light sources: (1) catch light - eyes - main light moved until it shows and appears; (2) eye glasses reflections - light high or far to one side; (3) long nose: light: low light not in profile; (4) large ears: head sideways; (5) strong chin: light below subject high; (6) hollow cheeks; no side light, no high light; (7) puffy cheeks: light high in front - camera light is important - face image: lens chin height; head and shoulder image: camera waist level
5b: [doodles] high key [doodles]
6: composition - whenever we point our camera at a subject or an object and look through the viewfinder or the ground glass we face a problem: composition, what it means
6b: composition in both civilization and in art - dealing with a rectangle, a square, and a surface - we also deal with an image of life coming through the lens - the rectangle, the [square], and the surface
7: are a physical container, a geometry - the possibilities of using this rectangle, square, or surface are limited - before they even had names coming from painting - rules - still in use in pictorial photography - let us go back to what we called the image of life - projected through the lens on the
7b: film - what do we see? landscapes, cities, the ocean, streets, people, etc. illuminated by the sun, moving in space in a certain rhythm or order - on the one hand the photographer had the small rectangle or square and struggles with the limitation - on the other side he gets lost in the infinite aspects of the image of life - how is he going to select in this ocean of images?
8: but let us look closer into this limitation of rectangle and square and what we can see in it - we can photograph one house, many houses, or a city - or one person, a group of people, or a crowd of one million people - Coney Island - we also can photograph one object or any part of it
8b: how is the photographer to select? - by connecting, sensing, feeling, understanding, the meaning and significance of life around - its order and rhythm
9: he will have to use all the tools of this medium - and be aware of the resulting spots and lines which form the image - and let its subject matter fall into place instead of organizing it - and by doing so another image will come into existence very different from the image of the eye - the photograph
9b-10: [blank]
10b: composing is not shifting subject matter around to make it look better, or more effective - we don't make a composition, we let subject matter coordinate itself, fall into place - through its meaning
11: the picture makes itself - understanding and attitude brings it about - Abbott - it is what you feel about and say it in terms of photography - no rules, formulas, no preconceived ideas
11b: only what says more - composition is balance, harmony, children painting, cosmic or universal, balance, equilibrium - Abbot's photographs: free in space - example: enlarger looks at what was in an image - idea with cropping - different shape of negatives
12: light sources - [see page 5 of this notebook]
12b: lighting for portraits
13: light for portraits - flats are large white or silver reflectors mounted on wheels - the surface is used
13b: bounced light or fill in - bounced light has direction like direct light - a surface from which light is bounced becomes the direction of light; the light source - room will then become flat - subject can be moved - with a large light source the light direction is less critical - old conception - there is a model: don't move main light, fill in
14: today light and mode is moveable - outdoor light effect depends on subject and camera angle - large reflector is harder than bounced light - an umbrella over a flat loses less light - a white umbrella or reflector diffuses the light more than a silver reflector - spotlight is hard - harsh sharp shadows used for hair and
14b: back lighting - many fashion photographers use contrasty light, to emphasize form and line rather than shapes and tones and depth - contrast makes two-dimensional effects also not contrasty - lights are used - flats - and then printed on 4,5,6, paper Kodalite
15: the hidden face - thousands of times did man make images of himself - in paintings, drawings, and in photography, in the imitating of the home or in public places - he has shown himself with all the insignia of status - or in simple everyday portrait - to be remembered only by members of his family - in this drive of self-imagery he did not tire of pointing out again and again, how to move or to behave
15b: how a prince has to look, or a general, or a bourgeois - but then something strange can be observed - that human beings very rarely let their inner real face be seen and in the history of man it comes to a tension between the individual and the general aspect - and mostly even the individual aspect retains a great deal of general portraiture
16: already in Egyptian art we notice a tension between the individual self and the hiding of the self - what in the course of history was stronger? - the personal or general aspect or approach? the Greeks avoided the individual aspect - instead they showed gods in the form of human beings
16b: the Middle Ages - again there is the objective image (Giotto) - it is not important that one is this way or that way, but that he is a saint or a martyr or prophet - in Gothic art there is society or community art in which clothes, behaviour, movement, court dances are more important than the individual
17: personal face - only in the Renaissance is the individual portrait the main aim of art - but in a limited way - excessive, open, personal individual images are rare
17b: Tizian [Titian], Hals, Rembrandt, who had a deep knowledge of human nature and the power to express it, have a great conventionality - completely open images of man - like Van Gogh, Munch, Kokoschka, Soutine - made us afraid - we run when we see it - because man wants to hide his face in the instability of passing by of things
18: he seeks to retain what is stable - or what remains - he becomes part of a religious community or a political community - in other words, the establishment - he seeks the accepted, the ethical - from the glaciers of solitude he runs into the warmth of family life - he makes you acquainted with his work, or activities as a bus driver, worker or scientist, or whatever - artist
18b: journalist to have a right of publication - man does not hide in art his individual face out of shame but out of a need for security - by doing so he follows old conventions - Christ is the portrait of the Middle Ages - misery, poverty, unhappiness, glamorized
19: in life, nature and images in photography - Alrai Hotel 378 64 RH 4-0200 Berenice
19b: [blank]
20: introduction - it took man (humanity) thousands of years to discover and to invent photography - which is a tremendous technological achievement -
20b: uses of photography
21: television - you can realize the intensity of this medium - photography as an art form - human beings expressing their understanding of and connection with life . . . and other human beings through the camera
21b: photography deals with optics, chemistry, physics, mechanics - consequently the photographer needs special training and great experience - so the study of photography is generally divided into basic, semi- advanced, and advanced courses
22: to get acquainted with the camera, exposure, development, with printing - in other words to be able to handle and use the tools, belongs to a basic course - the study of the image in photography, by producing and understanding it to be aware of the entirely different aspect of this image, its new expression - the difference between a photograph and a drawing belongs to an advanced course
22b: we could say the study of photography starts with the camera and the tools of the medium - photography starts with the projection of the photographer into the image- that does not mean technique in an advanced course will be neglected or ignored - on the contrary, rather intensified but not just a good print, or always a normal negative
23: depending on what is needed to express, depending on what a specific photographer has to say - images are not new - they were made thousands, even millions, of years [ago]: prehistoric paintings and drawings - cave paintings - scratching with rocks or painting with earth colours - the Egyptians, sculpting with their extraordinary vision - so far from the eye vision - the Greeks, sculpting their gods in white marble
23b: using the human body - inventing the ideal proportions - used for centuries - the Renaissance - going back to antiquity in their sculpture and painting but discovering perspective and chiaroscuro - modern painting and sculpture - discarding subject matter seen with the eye view and perspective and introducing the abstract
24: and then in 1820 the first official photograph was produced - so far images were made with the eye - with the hands - the picture-making instrument of the new medium photography was a machine - the camera
24b: the reflected light from objects or subjects projected through a window of a room or a black box - [camera obscura described] ["Evsa Model" written at bottom of page]
25: when it comes to any art form it is important to realize that there are no rules or regulations, no outdated laws or preconceived ideas - instead no routine, or taboos - it is our task to do away with presumptions that we know or can dictate what to reveal or what to conceal - or how to do - in other words - this field of human activity is free, open to constant change and new approaches but that does not mean
25b: that anything goes because there is the true and the false - the neurotic fantasy or reality - it exists, like in everything else, but we have no thermometer - only awareness, sensing, intuition - what more can one want? there is one idea or let us say a supposition that technique can be learned by everybody - takes application and work - but when it
26: comes to "talent" this is a gift of the gods - one in a million has received as a gift by nature - it seems to me that this is not possible - everybody has everything - it may depend on the amount of interest, love, and passion, courage - to be slow and patient, fast results, success, money, glamour, and stardom is a disaster - Picasso and Schönberg said not to be impressed by what others do - love it, yes - but not imitate
26b: because it means one has no confidence to find one's own way - to come back to basic and advanced courses -the downfall of the professional successful photographer can be that he has abandoned the basic, the elemental, in his work - the more advanced an artist is, the more basic he will be: Picasso - and often we find this quality in a beginner
27: but not too often - even they are conditioned by the thousands of pictures they have seen - and easily adopted - the images of life are the inspiring force to make us take photographs - not imitation of somebody else's visions - these will be stillborn - not application but exploration - application of accumulated knowledge but exploration of life - transfer into image - photograph and photographer = mass production - economical contradiction - what is the meaning
27b: life itself is the inspiring force to come to a photograph - not the imitation of somebody else - vision of life - put in a photograph - imitation photographs are stillborn - to respect and to admire others personally as well as work may lead to not respecting oneself - life and camera are all one needs
28: the eye - the eye developed originally as tool of perception for survival - evolution of the eye
28b: evolution of the eye
29: evolution of the eye - nerve system
29b: evolution of the eye - the eyes of insects
30: the evolution of the eye - the vertebrates
30b: evolution of the eye - different eyes
31: horizontal pupils - primates
31b: evolution of the eye - man and monkey alone have a central fixation area - lower animals
32: colour sensitivity in different animals
32b: the analogy between the eye and the camera
33: retina, rods, and cones - nerve endings as individual receptors
33b: the eye from lens to darkroom - eye and camera: both have a lens - the film in the camera - the retina in the eye - in both the opening of the lens is regulated by an iris
34: the similarities go beyond optics - involve chemistry and physics
34b: receptor cells, rods, and cones act like silver bromide - the rods are very receptive to sunlight and to neutral colour sensation
35: the cones begin to function at moderate light - cones in the retina are converted to the brain by a single fibre of the optic nerve
35b: pigments - colouring matter in plants and animals - photography is the art of producing images by the action of light
36: the photographic camera is basically a device for recording pictures or images visible to the eye - this origin is undoubtedly the basis of photography - the similarity of the eye and the camera becomes evident by direct comparison - human eye, section view [diagram]
36b: description of the mechanics of sight [diagram of a single box camera]
37: simple form of a box camera [diagram and description]
37b-38: comparison of the eye and the single box camera
38b: [blank]
39: the instant - speed - action - in the beginning of photography action was not recorded - the emulsion was too slow - but in 1851 Fox Talbot photographed by a sudden flash (electric) a page of a London Times fastened to a rapidly moving wheel - it was sharp - the first photos where action was stopped were stereoscopic, of people in the streets or landscapes - Oliver Wendell Holmes in an essay, "On How Man Walks," - in 1863, tells of basing his theory on a new source accessible only in the last years, namely, the instantaneous photograph - drawings were used from instantaneous photos to
39b: illustrate human walking or locomotion - a foot in the air had never been seen this way - people were shocked and found this very ugly - the eye cannot detect attitudes which last only fractions of seconds - consequently they were never seen before - it was believed that at a gallop all four legs of a horse were off ground at the same time - stretched out - Muybridge took instantaneous photographs to prove the point
40: he made the following very difficult experiment - description of experiment
40b: description of experiment - results
41: in 1880 Muybridge projected a similar view on the screen - anticipating the moving picture - he called the zoopraxiscope - Étienne-Jules Marey - a French physiologist specialized in human locomotion . . . successive phase of action
41b: Muybridge later on perfected his equipment - in 1887 Muybridge's work was published - description of his work
42: immediately there was objection - if an object is photographed in motion all feeling of motion is lost: the object stands still - painters tried to copy motion - it did not work either - photographers were advised to photograph only aspects that came close to rest - to show what the eye can see - what cannot be seen is ugly and unartistic - Maddox, an English physician, invented an emulsion soaked in water cadmium bromide in solution plus silver nitrate
42b: this solution was flowed on glass and dried - photographers were freed from making their own plates - it also could be processed later - at that time cameras could be held by hand - detective cameras
43: "you push the button we do the rest"
43b: [blank]
44: subject matter - when we photograph through a lens we inevitably force what is called subject matter - the images of subjects and objects in front of our eyes - there is practically nothing that can't be photographed - the world is our stage - from all the man-made images, paintings, drawings, sculptures, the photographic image is the closest to the image of the eye - in the beginning of photography this aspect was considered an enormous achievement, a kind of miracle
44b: but very soon it was thought of as an inferior non-artistic situation - because how great and artistic can a man-made image be (one can see practically identically through the eye) without creating it? - but coming back to subject matter - what specific importance does the selection of subject matter have for the photographer - or does it not make any difference what he photographs? - I think it differs with the photographer - some react to certain subjects only - others
45: have a wide range they connect with - I personally select through attraction, attracted like a magnet - and then I don't question or hesitate - others think about different subjects - decide upon, study them, research and then go to work, Example, Diane, Cartier, Marion Palfi: Civil Rights; Riis: poverty; Dorothea Lange: farm conditions; Walker Evans: America - non-acceptance of social conditions, helping through our visual awareness to change them - sometimes the subject is a chair or tree, a flower
45b: or house - not the document, the physical appearance, or the social statement - it goes far beyond - it goes beyond into another plane like words can become poetry - but whatever it is, whatever the subject, it always is the photographer in relation to his subject, and the subject means what? to the photographer - it is not possible to say - how I am to discover my subject matter - what it takes is interest, passion, and endless patience - what's the hurry? You have a lifetime - ambitious success [book turned sideways] - subject photographed in many different ways
46: the hidden face - thousands of times man made images of himself and his surroundings - painting, drawing, sculpture, and photographs - he has shown himself with all his status in public life or in his home - every portrait to be remembered or (in his self-imagery) he points out how to look, how to behave - a prince, a general or a bourgeois
46b: but very rarely does he let his real face be seen in history of image-making it comes to the problem between the individual or the general aspect - even individual has a lot of general - in Egyptian art tension between individual self and hiding of self - what shown in history, individual or general? - Greeks provided individual sculpted gods in human beings - Renaissance - some individual portrait unimportant
47: portrait is Christ - portrait belongs to a special class - society shown in cloth fashion and surroundings - Titian, Hals, Rembrandt great insight into human beings - power of expression but conventional - open images - Van Gogh , Munch, Kokoschka . . . man wants to hide his face - reason - instability, insecurity - he wants to retain what is stable or what remains
47b: thousands of years - technical advancements - immense medium - mass production, technical expression - basic exploration
48: thousands of times did man make pictures of himself - painting, drawing, sculpture - in public places - intimacy of home - his status, dignity - or everyday portrait to be remembered
48b: Egypt, Greece, Renaissance, Romans: personal vanity, power, corruption; Middle Ages: unimportant how one looks personally - martyr saints, popes, politicians, church, society, art, community, clothes, behaviour, not personal force - man wants to hide his face -
49: not out of shame, out of insecurity - wants to retain stable ethics, what remains - establishment - family life - well-dressed to be remembered by children - family snapshots show family life - status - Sanders
49b: [blank]
50: high key: (a) negative of a very uncontrasty subject; (b) well-developed; (c) printed in a developer that has been diluted three times; (d) 10 times development time; (e) some potassium bromide to make it hard
50b: [blank]
51: emulsion - today the light-sensitive material used consists of silver salts suspended in gelatin - it is called an emulsion - film and paper emulsions are very similar - when this emulsion is exposed to light there is a change invisible to the eye: the latent image - but there are many more ingredients in an emulsion than silver salts and gelatin - there are compounds to speed up the film
51b: compounds affecting colour sensitivity: (a) double coating; (b) overcoating; (c) film backing; (d) antihalation backing; (e) [?] against ultraviolet radiation - characteristics: gelatin: colloid, non-crystalline - (1) gelatin swells into a semi-solid state over a high range of temperatures; (2) holds the silver grains apart so that they do not clump - (silver grains
52: are attracted to each other) - only light-reflected grains become developable - emulsion: mostly silver bromide, chloride, iodide; double coating extends the latitude of the film: there is a fast and slow emulsion; overcoating: protection from scratches; film backing: a clear gelatin coating of hardened gelatin on the back of the film - to avoid curling when drying - balances expansion and contraction
52b: anti-halation backing: light passes through the emulsion - reflected back in a slightly different angle - and causes diffused light; halo: light-absorbing dye is used; irradiation: reflects light of grains with development centres mostly through overexposure; sensitivity: when silver grains are exposed to light for a long time they blacken completely for a short time; latent image:
53: when exposed to light, silver crystals change into metallic silver - this is not a change in colour but a mechanical change - description of developing
53b: discussion of light and emulsion
54-57: the hidden face [see above]
57b: [blank]
58: three dimensions versus two dimensions - we are once more concentrating on the image of the eye and the image of the camera - the closeness of eye and camera - the camera almost a mechanical replica of the organ eye
58b: perspective - da Vinci, camera obscura -
59: perspective - deals with the phenomenon of appearance - we see what we know does not exist - the theory of perspective has developed from one axiom:
59b: apparent decrease in size of an object as it recedes from the eye - parallel lines converging, parallel planes seem to approach and meet at infinity at one line
60: with our eyes we see in space and time - suppose we have to give a description of a room or kind of itinerary - how would we proceed? - first we focus on one object - focus and refocus - we see in space and time - we see in different planes separated by different distances - we see in space, live in space, and feel in space - our eyes wander from one thing to another
60b: on a surface - two dimensions - the whole image is projected in one fraction of time and viewed in one unit - this is a very important difference - to incorporate three dimensions into two - in painting, drawing, as well as photography - is a great problem - in painting before and after the discovery of perspective there were many ways to show depth
61: in the seventeenth century perspective took over - all other means of showing depth were abandoned - only 30 to 40 years ago modern painting rejected perspective - depth is always present on a surface - abstract photography often tries to escape the image of perspective - in photography the third dimension resolved by using every tool of the medium
61b: light, tones, sharpness, unsharpness, camera angle, distance, depth of field, use of different lenses - when the reflected light of an object or a subject strikes a surface everything seen in space is flattened on a surface - the third dimension is present as an illusion
62-64: the hidden face [see above]
64b: [blank]
65-66: the hidden face
66b: the hidden face - Christ was the portrait of the Renaissance - poverty, misery, suffering, unhappiness are glamorized - also the saints suffering, sacrificing their lives - this is followed in literature
67: Victor Hugo, Zola, Dostoyevsky etc. - the camera - fashion, hippies, rag-pickers, dirt, fight against social conditions, youth communes their castle - eccentricity, mixture of Middle Ages and Victorian fashion, and nudity, equality of sexes - same clothes, or reversed - man long hair, wearing woman's apparel - woman, pants, boots, and masculine look - and then everything is glamorized
67b: [blank]
68: from beginning mass media - produced photography - in masses
68b: [blank]
69: quotation: "I have been often asked what I wanted to prove with my photographs. I don't want to prove anything. The camera is an instrument of detection. We photograph what we know but also what we don't know. A moment is caught that was and never will be again. We are surrounded by numbers of images everywhere, most
69b: of them invisible to our eye because we are blinded by routine - conditioned."
70: statement: "I have been often asked what I would like to prove with my photographs. The answer is I don't want to prove anything. The camera is an instrument of detection. We photograph not only what we know but what we don't know. A moment is caught that was and will never be again and lives on in the picture. We are surrounded by thousands of images everywhere. Most of them invisible because we are blinded by routine. But pointing the lens at something I am asking a question,
70b: and the photograph . . . may be the answer. In other words, I am not the one who knows or wants to prove. On the contrary, I am the one who learns the lesson."
71: development solutions: need four kinds of chemicals - commonly used developers or reducers are: (a) . . . ; (b) metal; (c) elon; (d) pyro; (e) amidol; accelerators: developers in order to become active need an alkali to accelerate chemical action - the more alkali the more vigourous the action
71b: the experimental and the so-called stronger non-experimental - photographer - silver salts, gelatin, film, paper
72: types of emulsions [see above]
72b: what we are born in or conditioned to - status, different classes, the whole scale from misery, poverty, middle class, wealthy, high society, aristocratic - not in use of subject matter but all of this can be used - the artist's only condition is the human condition - he cannot be conditioned
inside back cover: (1) light; (2) composition; (3) light sources; (4) statement - the eye - Frederick Frank?
outside back cover: 587-7124
LM.AR6.NOTE20 Notebook 20. - date? - front and back covers intact; front and back covers buff-coloured; spiral bound; 7 3/4 x 5 inches; 48 sheets; 48 sheets used.
1: photography and the printing press - were connected from the beginning - daguerreotypes were made into printing plates - Donné - made metal plates print table - silver areas were etched out and highlights built up by electrotype process - ink could be held in this plate and it became printable - Fizeau (1840) improved this method - he sprinkled the plate with powdered resin, which resulted in breaking up middle tones in minute divisions of white and black tones - Talbot 1852 and 1858 - 1866 another method, Woodbury
1b: history of photojournalism
2: history of photojournalism, half-tone process, news photography
2b: history of photojournalism
3: history of photojournalism - Illustrated London News - O'Sullivan, Brady
3b: history of photojournalism - Nadar's son and Chevruel, 1886, 1892 the Illustrated American - planned to use its magazine for the purpose of these photographs - in its first issue they published six photos of the Navy, two photos of the Kennel Club, six historical sites, ten photographs of fashion - but it was abandoned soon - the same thing happened to other magazines - writing was reduced to captions - and after the First World War feature articles had just become
4: dominant, very often illustrated by drawings - the idea of a purely photographic magazine was revived by Henry Luce in 1936 - Life Time - it was envisaged as the show book of the world - mind guided camera - Life: content - spot news - feature stories written and photographed to order - cooperation of editors and photographers
4b: the laboratory develops and prints material - the editors choose which photographs will best tell the story - generally the captions tell the story alone -picture less posed, more informal - fashion magazines were among the first to use photographs - fashion personalities, Vanity Fair
5: photojournalism is traced back to the Penny magazine in London - 1832 - history of photojournalism
5b: history of photojournalism - the camera is born of a liaison of science and art - the photographer is not a scientist; he is an artist - photography is an aesthetic not a scientific product - photographers at that time lived and dressed like bohemians - the chronicler was considered an artist, also a journalist but without a journal
6: technology was not advanced - an artist had to make a replica - history of photojournalism continued
6b-8b: history of photojournalism
9: history of photojournalism - the photographer can express directly only the emotions of others - he cannot express an emotion of his own - it is sensitivity to the emotions of others that photojournalism requires of the photographer
9b: photographer should be detached - if at the end his own emotions remain unimportant, can find expression at the hands of the writer with whom he deals - words necessary - where? when? who? - in photojournalism the picture is made first - not reversed as before, when picture served to illustrate words - artist photographer in the beginning considered photography superior to painting - camera not only a reporter also a commentator
10-11b: analogy between the eye and the camera
12: analogy between the eye and the camera - we have said that there is nothing new about picture-making - prehistoric, etc. - until camera - the ways of drawing have changed - in every stage of civilization picture making is present - when we study this production carefully and closely one thing becomes obvious - in no stage of man's evolution were images made to reproduce or to imitate nature - but always to express the state of the condition of human thought
12b: for following generations art is the only measure or the record of passed disappeared cultures and civilizations - let us come back to eye seeing and photographic seeing
13: eye image and camera image - when we look at something the image is already transformed
13b: but by using the tools of photography now we have two images: the mental image of the eye and the mechanical image of the camera
14: photographic image and eye image - similarities and differences - we are conditioned - we like routine
14b: we imitate - forced originality - child sees art - the young paint what they see - what they have liked - so do great artists - by miracle escaped routine - concentration camps - originality - origin means coming from the source - and this again is one of the rarest miracles to occur - we have all been badly trained - but there also is some good left and that we shall try to retain here
15: David is an independent photographer - he photographs what attracts his eye, his whim, no matter what it is - he has no . . . of how to do it - like children's play - everything is valid - a spoon, a chair or glass, streets at night or day - he makes people's portraits - the image seems to come
15b: out of the photographer - a daydream yet for that he had to be wide awake - child's play
16: simple and without fuss - photographs are subtle, refined, loving, young - they have sleep - incorrupt and incorruptible - light: condition for the life of the subject matter selected - there is nothing . . .
16b: David himself as young as simple - direct courageous and incorruptible as his pictures are - also as nonviolent - also as loving
17: abstract - 1913 Coburn - five photographs: New York from its pinnacles - nonobjective photos - three mirrors - Schad - Dada - photo without camera - 1921 Man Ray - Moholy-Nagy - photogram, rayogram - Talbot 1833 - Man Ray - solarization - positive, negative - reversed - reticulation network - distortion, sagging, relief
17b: stroboscopic photographs - Edgerton - aerial photography - photographs of fire, lightning, smoke, of zinc oxide - electronic microscope - X-ray photos - telescopic photos of sky, stars - my ideas:
18: (1) in the beginning everything was there; (2) everyone 1840 announces phot. camera production, (3) two kinds of photographers: (4) pictorialists, chroniclers; (5) chroniclers produce photos of events, etc. - history of photojournalism
18b: picture comes first - history of photojournalism
19: photojournalism
19b: [blank]
20: the study of photography generally divided into basic or elementary course and advance courses - this division to a certain degree is justified because photography deals with optics . . . mechanics, and so forth and therefore needs specific training and great experience - to get acquainted with the camera, exposure, development - belongs to a basic course - the study of the photographic image, its entirely different aspect, expression, and aesthetics is the aim of this course
20b: this includes, not as one would think, neglect or disregard of technique but on the contrary, awareness of technique will be intensified but may be from a different point of view than the laboratory course - I would say that the study of photography starts with the understanding of the camera and its tools - photography starts with the self-projection of the photographer - we all know where we can see Photographs - in newspapers, magazines, publicity, advertising
21: education, science, war illustration and documentation - approximately every branch of human activity - photography from the beginning was an industry - today is a giant mass medium - it is the basic language of the movies and of television - it has taken proportions that through this image presidents can be made - and people speak of their image - this image has very much to do with the photographic image - but besides all the . . . aspects of where the photograph is used
21b: we can see photography exhibited in art galleries and in museums, which means it has made the grade and finally is considered an art
22: the study of photography is divided into basic or elementary - discussion of technique and aesthetics
22b-23: discussion of technique and aesthetics
23b: but in 1820 the first photograph was produced - the name of the instrument called camera - we have a combination of science and art
24: the camera with its tools belongs to science - the result: the photograph belongs to the field of art - where are photographs used?
24b: discussion of where photographs are used
25: (1) plug machine in; (2) take rollers out; (3) put old liquid in; (4) put rollers back; (5) put top on; (6) put bottles in; (7) turn machine on for several seconds
25b: (8) expose; (9) warm up 5 seconds; (10) put paper through; (11) turn machine off
26: (1) plug out; (2) take bottles away; (3) take rollers out; (4) wash them; (5) liquid in other bottles; [no number (6)] (7) wash tray; (8) change Kleenex; check on rubber band
26b: [blank]
27: photographs workshop by Lisette Model [doodles]
27b: a course for advanced students - knowledge of darkroom procedures is required - exploration of the medium and inventiveness of the student to find his own original style
28: from the beginning of history and before - man made millions of images of himself - in painting, sculpture, drawing, and photographs - he has pictured himself in many different ways
28b: man making images of himself
29: Egyptians, Greeks, Romans
29b: Middle ages, Renaissance
30: Rembrandt - images of people all over the world were national - they looked different in different countries and continents - China, India, Japan - Europeans in France, Germany, and England - had different cultures costumes, fashions - but even the face was the individual style of the time - hairdo, etc. was predominant - very rarely do we find images where these people show themselves
30b: Van Gogh was rejected because he showed the distressed - most people hide behind an image - the inner real face is dangerous to be exposed - When photography came into existence and instantaneous photographs would be taken - there was an uproar - people did want to be caught unaware - they sat quiet and respectable - for themselves - the family and posterity - bourgeois, rich, poor, including peasants - best clothes, family, friends, offices
31: everybody wants to be glamorized - nobody wants to look his age - everybody wants to be accepted - women are shown as brides, mothers, and as a decoration for the male's vanity - so far! - there is another aspect that as much as I know came into existence with Christ - that is the coming into existence of suffering, misery, injustice - Christ the martyr, the saints, the persecuted - later on the proletarian riots in Europe - sweatshops, modern slaves of
31b: industry - discrimination - exposure - glorification of the underprivileged as a weapon against the state and the church - again an objective aspect of the man - with all its diversity - photojournalism - politics - how about self expression? as much as it may seem to be self-expression we cannot get away from being a part of the human condition - even if today it looks like a unique artist - if his work is valid it will be objective
32-33b: emulsion
34: exposure
34b: sensitivity of film and exposure
35: exposure
35b: under bright parts more development centres have been formed than under less bright parts - after development the opaque deposit of black metallic silver will be densest under the bright part of the image, less heavy under the less light parts [diagram of a flower in a pot] - background black: no reflection - daylight is streaming through a window, illuminating the flower, the stem, and red pot regularly
36: here is a film strip scheme [diagram of a film strip] - (a) we open the shutter of the camera and light is coming through the lens forming an image on the emulsion; (b) this image is very bright in the flower pot, less bright in the stem part, least bright in the red pot part - for example, we open the shutter for 1/25 of a second - the reflected light of the image can rest on the emulsion and development centres can be formed - obviously more development centres will be formed under the white flower, less on the stem
36b: and least on the red pot - discussion of lighting and film
37: the negative [diagram of film strip] - discussion of lighting and film
37b: underexposure - [diagram of film strip]
38-38b: overexposure - [diagrams of film]
39: exposure [diagrams]
39b: exposure - distortions, density, characteristic curves
40: development, contrast
40b: 421-3198 Steve Sondheim [doodles]
41: something strange can be discovered - human beings don't want their face to be seen - [hidden face see above]
41b-42: hidden face
42b: hidden face - psychology seems to . . . individuals but it does not search for remedies
43: composition: (1) whenever we point the camera: composition; (2) this word also used in painting, sculpture, drawing, music, architecture, chemistry; (3) it means: put together, organize, combine, put into a certain order, rearrange - this again is not an isolated situation - nature, day, night, sun rises, goes down - most human activities, work, are organized on civilization
43b: back to photography - composition
44: selection of subject matter
44b: composition
45: the picture makes itself - composition
45b: photography: no rules, no formula, prescribed ideas -the only thing that counts is what expresses more
46-48: [blank]
48b: [page turn upside down] -79th and 3rd - 71 Deep Wood Drive, Chautauqua, New York - Marty Forsher - 5 - chiropractor Paul Mathis, 2067 Broadway between 71 and 72 St. - Tr7-5520
insert: an advertising supplement from the Midnight Globe December 19, 1978 on arthritis
LM.AR6.NOTE21 Notebook 21. - date? - front and back covers intact; front and back covers buff-coloured; spiral bound; 7 3/4 x 5 inches; 48 sheets; 48 sheets used.
1: (1) thousands of years to discover, invent photography, (2) technological achievement; (3) no comp. space, astronomy, under ocean, E.S.P. - importance of photography
1b: importance of eye image - difference - elementary and advanced
2: routine, doing away with old concepts, formulas, preconceived taboos
2b: questions: (1) enumerate all tools coming into workshop; (2) eye, camera, similarity, consequences historically until today; (3) perspective, its discovery, consequences until today; (4) subject matter - immense importance: what has happened to and with it; (5) image portraits through the centuries; (6) composition; (7) light; (8) emulsion, exp., development; (9) looking through enlarger; (10) abstract photograph versus abstract painting sequences; (11) the instant; (12) is photography less "spiritual" than the other arts?
3: (1) eye, camera, perspective; (2) image through the centuries, subject matter; (3) composition, light; (4) emulsion, exp., development, darkroom; (5) instant, sequence, abstract, surrealistic photography - photojournalism, the ready-made image - in and out of focus - printing, unconventional, the image in the air - image on paper without limit in goal[?]
3b: [blank]
4: subject matter - I have often been asked what I wanted to prove with my photographs
4b: I am the one who gets the lesson
5: invention of photography - immensity of the medium
5b: study of photography - basic and advanced
6: do away with rules, regulations - free in constant movement and open to change - not everything goes
6b: subject all over
7: subject matter - when we photograph through the lens we inevitably force subject matter - through the lens the light rays reflected by subjects or objects, nature or man-made, strike the emulsion - there is practically nothing that cannot be photographed either with highly complicated scientific equipment or with small rapid cameras - in spite of differences we shall discuss later, the photographic image
7b: comes closest to what the eye sees - painting, drawing, etc. - in the beginning of photography this aspect was considered an enormous achievement or kind of miracle - not just technically but also artistically - but very soon, thanks to jealousy business-wise and to the preference of painters and critics, photography was considered an unaesthetic image - because how great can it be if one can see it with the eye identically
8: and how ugly are aspects seeing more than the eye can see - but coming back to subject matter let us find out what specific importance the selection has on the photographer and the photograph - or does it not make any difference what is photographed? it differs with the photographer - as we can see by looking at the work of different photographers, some react to certain
8b: and few subjects and others can photograph, not illustrate, practically everything - wide range - there are photographers who plan in advance - study the project carefully - people they want to picture - get in personal touch with them in advance - and only then can they function - they often, but not always, are concerned with social conditions, civil rights, the camera becoming a weapon to better the
9: world or the opposite (Hitler, Eva Braun, etc.) - Cartier, I have heard, studies before he goes to a new city, country, etc. - Diane, research - Riis did not even want to photograph, only fight poverty - the same thing is true of Lewis Hine and Dorothea Lange - and many others - great pictures came out of this approach - then there are photographers who work by sheer attraction, not caring what it is but relying on instinct that leads them
9b: photography is used for thousands of purposes, good and bad - propaganda - capitalism - or communistic - for or against war - publicizing or non-acceptance of all kinds of conditions - sensationalism - the way crime and sex are shown
10: to divert people from boredom - the abstract photographers who heavily lean on the development of modern painting - the young very sensitive photographers through whom the object is a projection of this inner world - everybody is right as long as the photograph is true - Goethe
10b: [page upside down] on the one hand limited by the rectangle - other side gets lost by the infinite aspects of what life projects onto the lens - how is he going to select - we can photograph one house or many houses
11: [page upside down] square and surface - the image of life
11b: [page upside down] discussion on composition
12: [page upside down] problem of selection
12b: [page upside down] instead of organizing as fast and spontaneous as it may seem - let subject matter fall into place - manifestation of life
13: introduction - thousands of years to invent photography
13b: where photographs are used
14: the immensity of this medium - photography as a form of art
14b: human beings expressing their understanding and connection with life, themselves, and other beings through the camera
15: photography deals with optics, chemistry, physics, mechanics - study of photography divided into basic and advanced
15b: the study of the image of photography - advanced course
16: images are not new
16b: Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Renaissance, modern painting, abstract - 1832 first official photograph
17: man used eyes, hands, and muscles of body to build image in space and time - in photography the picture- making instrument is a machine - camera obscura
17b: camera obscura
18: the reflected light - do away with rules and regulations
18b: preconceived ideas, old-fashioned assumptions, routine or taboos - to do away with the idea that we know or can dictate; what is right, what is wrong, or what to reveal and what to conceal - in other words, this field of activity called art is free - open to constant change, new approaches
19: when it comes to any art form it is important to realize that we have to do away with preconceived ideas old fashioned concepts, routine, taboos
19b: that does not mean that everything goes - there is such a thing as true and false - interest, love = talent
20: imitation, self-reliance, basic and advanced - children's painting
20b: images not new - do away with preconceived ideas and routine
21: we have to realize that our task to do away with outdated rules - nobody can tell what to reveal, what to conceal - but not everything goes
21b: eye - developed tool of perception for survival - evolution of the eye
22: evolution of the eye
22b: pigments in eye [diagrams] - evolution of the eye
23: sensitivity of eye to light - evolution of the eye - eye, camera, rods and cones
23b: [blank]
24: the instant: (I) first photograph action was not stopped; (1) one thousand years to discover; (2) no computers; (3) . . . image of movies, television; (4) where to see photographs, immensity of the medium; (5) we see photographs in museum, etc.; (6) phot. study - [divided into] basic and advanced courses; (7) nothing new in making images; (8) when we deal with art medium realize no rules or regulations, routine, or taboos;
24b: (9) technique not neglected - technique versus expression - basic, advanced, artists, children's painting; (10) exploring
25: introduction: (1) it took thousands of years to discover and invent photography
25b-26: where photographs are used
26b: photography as an art form
27: photography deals with optics, chemistry, physics, and mechanics - photographer needs special training and great experience to be able to perform in this medium
27b: the study of the image in photography and the study of the camera's tools
28: but technique should not be disregarded
28b: camera machine - pinhole - reflected rays of light from subject - Leonardo - no rules or regulations
29: no outdated laws or concepts - it is our task to do away with presumptions that we know, that we can dictate
29b: not anything goes - there is as in everything the true and the false - reality - fantasy - fantasizing - no thermometer only sensing awareness instruct to recognize - the technique versus talent - depends on love, interest - Schönberg - ambition results in recognition, success, stardom
30: not impressed by what others do - interested, loving, but doing one's own thing - have confidence in your own untapped potential - advanced, demanding - greater artist more basic - images of life - one's own life inspiration - not images of other people's lives - not application, exploration - [not] application of accumulated knowledge of other people's pictures but
30b: exploration of life and one's own vision - no rules or regulations
31: the eye originally developed as a tool of perception for survival - today the evolution of the eye starts with a pigmented area sensitive to L and C [light and colour]
31b: evolution of the eye
32: eye ball - retina - components of the eye
32b: [blank]
33: it took thousands of years to discover and invent photography
33b: importance of photography
34: photography deals with optics, chemistry, physics - so we divide courses - elementary, advanced, master
34b: images - not new - photography comes closest to eye image - cameraobscura - no rules or regulations
35: do away with routine - convention - the idea that we know how to do it - not everything goes
35b: awareness, sensing, intuition - technique
36: subject matter - through lens - subject matter, meaning - everything can be photographed - the world is a stage - weapon, act, war, peace
36b: equality, discrimination, justice, lying, fooling - Riis, Lange, Palfi, Diane, Cartier, Sanders, poets - always photograph relation [between] himself [and the] world - interest, passion, patience
37: from the beginning photography was mass medium - in other words mass produced - that is not new - but what is new is that the photographer is now mass produced - so much surprising because the commercial part has diminished and has disappeared - photojournalism, advertising, magazines, Harper's, Vogue, they are provincial, nothing compared to before - photography as an art product is on the market, but the possibilities for a great number to live on it are very down
37b: less money one can get out of photography - professions, occupations, jobs are abandoned for photography - how do we understand that - not so in painting - thousands of painters in the Renaissance - commercial - let us talk about outlet - searching - but teachers are born, can be trained, but few artists like to teach - forced to have handicap for their work [doodles]
38: introduction - it took man thousands of years to discover or invent photography - a tremendous technological achievement - without photography . . .
38b: without photography
39: photography an art form
39b: photography divided into elementary and advanced
40: does not mean technique is neglected - images not new
40b: evolution of image-making
41: camera [diagram] - now mechanical image-making - no rules or regulations
41b: no rules
42: imitation
42b-43: thousands of years to invent photography
43b: everybody's pictures look alike - importance, loving good pictures, personally satisfied - admire certain phot. style - imitation - idea - be published, exhibited, written up, famous, status, and money - art: relationship with life, other human beings, oneself - express with camera - photograph terms of photography - as Abbott says: "emotion serving" - next session, subject matter
44: [page upside down] - Goethe says: few people have the imagination for reality - Abbott: photography does not teach you to express your emotions - it teaches you how to see - mass production versus art - piece of each? negatives are thrown out or reduced to few prints and then destroyed
44b: [page upside down] photography has brought world new understanding of life - to be free, not to be sloppy - no games, neurotic fantasies - talent = awareness, sensitivity
45: (1) photography through the lens forces subject matter - subject and object - image seen through the eye, man-made or nature; (2) nothing one cannot photograph - world is a stage; (3) from man-made images - painting, drawing, sculpture, photography = closest to eye image - beginning great - Hugo . . . Anage enthusiasm - soon opposite - unartistic - what eye sees - detail; (4) . . .
45b: depends on photographer - some [much] subject matter - some [little] subject matter - I work - others plan think, organize - purpose: social fight, propaganda - for, against - true, lies, cover up - Diane, Palfi - Duane Michals, Riss, Hine, Lange, etc. - investigate, illustrate, propagandize - truth, lie, escape - poetry; (5) whatever subject, always relationship between photographer and subject matter; (6) often right subject leads into photographic style
46: subject matter in fashion, landscapes, portraits, people, glamour, beauty, infocus 64, out of focus - imitation - painting - privacy - but subject matter not photographs - all tools used: light, contrast, distance, tonality, angle = image
46b: introduction - photograph with images - subject - enumerate - privacy
47: everything photograph - what subject means - endless
47b: lens = images - subject endless - closest to eye - photograph . . . deals with privacy [doodles]
48: [blank]
48b: objects in movement - photography = in movement - unexpected aspect [doodles]
inside back cover: 212-428-5321 Joe Cuomo, Queens College
LM.AR6.NOTE22 Notebook 22. - date? - front and back covers intact; front and back covers buff-coloured; spiral bound; 7 3/4 x 5 inches; 22 sheets; 22 sheets used.
1: in nature we cannot create light - but nature is created through light
1b: (1) catch light in eyes - move main fill-in until the catch light appears; (2) eye glass reflections - light high - or far to one side; (3) long nose or shortened lowering camera - shooting front not profile; (4) strong chins: shooting from below; double chin: subject set high, lean forward; (5) large ears: head sideways, ear faces camera
2: (6) hollow cheeks: no side light, no high light; (7) puffy cheeks: main light high, front shot - old photographs - Cooper Helwitt - gaslight tube - soft green - pale green; (1) main light 45 degrees from nose - higher than subject - little black shadow under the nose; (2) fill in light - same strength - lighting for portraits
2b-3b: lighting for portraits
4: emulsion
4b: [blank]
5: (1) film consists of a supporting base, celluloid or paper on which an emulsion is spread; (2) in an emulsion the dispersed particles are a mixture of silver salts, silver bromide, silver iodide, or silver chloride; (3) silver halide or salt undergo a change - silver salts are sensitive to light - emulsion
5b-9b: emulsion
10: emulsion - characteristic curve
10b: development
11: exposure
11b: [blank]
12: developing solutions - accelerators
12b-13: acceleration
13b-14: acid-fixing bath
14b: gelatin - transparent colloid - overcoating, double coating, etc.
15: gelatin
15b: light - tool physical vehicle to express the medium - light number one tool in photography
16: [page turned sideways] science says - light =radiant energy - travels in vibrations or waves -
16b: [page turned sideways] dispersion, refraction
17: [page turned sideways] another way of looking at light - the main source of light on the planet is the sun
17b: [page turned sideways] it is important to be aware of how differently photographers use light
18: [page turned sideways] movie technique - illuminate the place with sufficient general diffused light so that negative responds but without character and force, and then give more light for different accents - it permits fast working, but it is not forming of subject through light - on the contrary, lightening up future shadows - photographer does not create light and shadows as he feels it - if one would start with many lights one would have to take some away gradually, to create shadows - in nature we cannot create light, only select - but nature itself is created through light
18b-21: [blank]
21b: [diagram - light? camera? pinhole?]
22: [blank]
22b: [diagram - light through a prism?]
LM.AR6.NOTE23 Notebook 23. - date? - front and back covers intact; front cover coloured cartoon of UFOs; back cover orange with designs; 8 x 6 inches; 33 sheets; 26 sheets used; one page ripped out and inserted.
1: anecdote about a frightened bank robber who tried to rob a bank but was told that they only spoke Spanish and that he would have to be patient while they used an interpreter
1b: [blank]
2: it took humanity thousands of years to discover and invent photography
2b: discussion of where photographs are used
3: human beings expressing themselves through the camera
3b: photographer needs special and thorough training
4: basic and advanced courses
4b: photography starts with the projection of the photographer - there is nothing new in picture making - images are not new
5: Egyptians, Greeks, Renaissance
5b: so far artists worked with their eyes and hands - invention of photography
6: no rules or regulations
6b: freedom is not to be mistaken for sloppiness - talent - Schönberg - I don't believe everybody has even amount of passion, interest, commitment, courage to fail
7: results - success - failure - imitation - we like what somebody else has done because we have no confidence in our own perception
7b: without photography
8: No A282 8636 Number Bel Sito Tel. 23-365 S Marco 2517 Purlator - Aperture - 212 759-4516 - Chuck 966-3844
8b: [doodles]
9: subject matter - when we photograph through the lens we force, inevitably, what is called subject matter
9b: sees [rest of page blank]
10: in the beginning of photography this aspect of the image was considered miraculous - an enormous achievement - but very soon, thanks as usually to the painters, the eternal discrimination . . . [against] photography was declared - unartistic, unaesthetical, mechanical, inferior, how could an image be artistic if the lens could see the identical image the eye sees, and even more so - we will come to this point some other day - what specific importance does subject matter have for the photographer - or does it not make any difference what he photographs?
10b: [blank]
11: I think it differs with the photographer: some react only to certain subjects - others work in a wide range - I select by attraction - just follow my appetite - other photographers think, plan, organize, work on projects, research - Cartier - enormous range - Duane Michals, Lange, social conditions, pathology, Palfi, justice, Man Ray, abstract, surrealist introducing new vision mostly initiated from modern painting but not only - we have pointed out that we use photography to illustrate, to document, to investigate, to reveal also to eye - advertising, publicity, the fight for better living conditions
11b: [blank]
12: influence people, subconscious projecting - God knows what, without this awareness of seeing - we photograph beauty, glamour, disaster, disease, since the event of the small camera there is nothing that cannot be photographed - Walker Evans America - Riis, poverty, exploration also of the self - subject matter used like poetry, poets use words - subject matter has its fashion, certain times - landscapes, formal portraits, interiors, self-portraits, glamour
12b: [blank]
13: sex, obscurity, direct image, manipulated image - mixed media - the world is our stage - everything can be photographed - how much is true original? - how much conditioned imitation? - fantasy not reality - constructing with life not escaping from - photography can be a weapon - we dislike - we try to say the truth or we lie on purpose, as with everything else
13b: [blank]
14: photographer also tries to do away with recognizable subjects and deals with forms, with light, shapes, texture - comes to design rather than realistic constant - portrait = essence of likeness - landscape to communicate with nature - scientific photography led into space exploration - self-exploration - selection of subject matter can reveal the photographer
14b: [blank]
15: subject matter is not the photographer - the problem of privacy - the law - photograph looks like eye image but reveals other dimensions - concentration, commitment, dedication - taboo, privacy, changes with time
15b: [blank]
16: I have often been asked what I wanted to prove with my photographs - the answer is: I don't want to prove anything - the camera is an instrument of detection: we photograph what we know and what we don't know - when I point my camera I am asking a question, and sometimes the photograph is the answer
16b: in other words I am the one who gets the lesson
17: light is the number one tool in photography
17b: [blank]
18: visible spectrum
18b: [blank]
19: visible spectrum continued
19b: [blank]
20: refraction
20b: [blank]
21: there is another way of looking at light
21b: [blank]
22: light and shadow - different photographers use it differently
22b: [blank]
23: artificial light - diffused light
23b: [blank]
24: light and portraiture
24b: [blank]
25: portraiture and light
25b: dispersion, refraction
26: periodicity - gods of light
26b-33: [blank]
insert (recto): subject matter - nothing we cannot photograph
insert (verso): privacy, law, we can relate or escape
LM.AR6.NOTE24 Notebook 24. - date? - front and back covers intact; front and back covers black; 8 3/4 x 6 3/4 inches; 51 sheets; 25 sheets used.
1: my God: It is certainly a difficult decision after artist existence with those brilliant festivities this kind of life offers us daily - in the highest point, in possession of one's capacities to say: this is the end, and to retire into isolation and sudden non-existence with patience - to resign all glory, success, and to postpone this love of taking leave until it is too late and the cruel truth hammered into your ear: you are nothing any more, you aren't anything, nobody wants you, you have failed to protect your once-great name
1b: and then, my God, looking back from the high point of old age, resignation, and . . . when one thinks it over what a tremendous price one had to pay for this glory and success - with incessant work, restless giving, ambition, untold nervous stress, and excitement - haste limiting the world, fear of failure that one could . . . or through completion - when every evening one had again to fight for fame, use one's elbows, defend oneself
2: show one's teeth - never ever come to rest - these one can see, realize, understand how expensive this little fame is bought, which in no time is gone - the next morning still registered in the newspapers and then no more - nothing - resignation and thoughts - the American Conspiracy - Marilyn Ferguson
2b: [blank]
3-4: information on the Stanislavksy Museum
4b: [blank]
5: (1) about a great actress of our generation - she is built small, harmonious, and strong - her head is large and well formed - her face is small, soft - her forehead high and her lips forceful
5b: [blank]
6: Sept. 9, 1982 received two prints - frame - one print LES series - seven portraits = 10 - G. Sander
6b: [blank]
7: introduction - it took humanity thousands of years to discover and invent photography
7b: [blank]
8: newspapers - magazines - education, science - where photographs are used
8b: [blank]
9: we can realize the immensity of this medium
9b: [blank]
10: the camera - photography deals with optics, physics, chemistry, mechanics
10b: [blank]
11: basic and advanced courses
11b: light, composition, perspective, subject matter, how the eye sees, how the camera sees, the instant
12: photography starts with the projection of the photographer - his understanding of the mechanism - life and himself into the picture - it is by no means as black and white as here mentioned - technique is never neglected - on the contrary - very much intensified - it is not just a good print we are after but the specific print
12b: [doodles]
13: subject matter - when we photograph through the lens we inevitably face what is called subject matter
13b: [doodles]
14: subject matter: (1) when we photograph through the lens we face inevitably what is called subject matter; (2) images of subjects and objects - man-made or images of nature; (3) from all the man-made images . . . the photographic image comes closest to the eye image - to what and how the eye sees; (4) in the beginning of photography this aspect was considered miraculous, an enormous achievement - but soon, as usual because of the influence of painters,
14b: [blank]
15: who declared: what can be so great about an image one can see naturally through the eye and nothing is changed or added - when we photograph it is practically identical - the photographic image is declared unartistic, unaesthetical, mechanical, inferior - in other words there was nothing creative about it - to come back to subject matter - what importance [does] subject matter (specific subject matter) have for the photographer
15b: [blank]
16: or does it make any difference what is photographed - it differs very much with the photographer - some have a wide range of subject matter - some specific subject matter - we have said photography is our instrument of investigation - sometimes a weapon - propaganda, fight for better conditions, publicity - we can say the truth was love, hate, beauty, glamour, discovered
16b: [blank]
17: when we photograph through the lens we force, inevitably, what is called subject matter - objects and subjects, man-made or nature - there is practically nothing that cannot be photographed - the world is our stage - from all the man-made images - painting, sculpture, drawing, etc. - the photographic image comes closest to the eye image - in the beginning it was considered a miracle - but soon many declared the influence of painters
17b: [blank]
18: Victor Hugo
18b: [blank]
19: subject matter
19b: [blank]
20: some photographers react to many subjects - Cartier, Sanders, Abbott, others to name a very few - I work by attraction - others research, plan, study, home projects - there is nothing that is not photographed
21: related to the photographer - subject matter has its fashion - people, landscapes, sex, etc. photographers work on single pictures or on sequences or series - photography can be direct, manipulated, surrealistic, abstract
21b: [blank]
22: three dimensions versus two dimensions - the image of the eye and the image of the camera
22b-51: [blank]
51b: [page turned upside down] polaroid - open: pull top, close on the side, right side pushed front pops up - put film in - follow colour - with film - [doodles]
LM.AR6.NOTE25 Notebook 25. - date? - front and back covers intact; front cover deep turquoise; back cover buff-coloured; 6 x 3 inches; 51 sheets; 12 sheets used.
1: manual exposure - the exposure must be long enough to allow the least bright part of the reflected light of the subject matter - exposure
1b: underexposure
2: overexposure
2b: the characteristic curve
3: [page turned sideways] filters - a device of glass or other materials put between the film and the scene photographed in order to reduce or eliminate light of certain colours
3b: [blank]
4: [page turned sideways] contrast filter:
4b: [page turned sideways] neutral density - no colour correction - all light rays are held back
5: [page turned sideways] green corrects oversensitivity - violet blue, red to normalize - infrared holds back almost all visible light - light passes through infrared rays
5b: ultraviolet - yellow
6: complementary colours - red:green; yellow:green, violet; yellow:blue
6b: Regine Koruer Mauerkirch Strasse, 170 N-8000, Munchen 81 Tel. 089/98/85/261 - No. 0501 5/10 79, Lisette Model - Rockville Management N.Y. Fileria MIT - Tasse Riscosse 670 200 870
6b: Regine Koruer Mauerkirch Strasse, 170 N-8000, Munchen 81 Tel. 089/98/85/261 - No. 0501 5/10 79, Lisette Model - Rockville Management N.Y. Fileria MIT - Tasse Riscosse 670 200 870
7: George Krause 701-394 Patrigui - Roberto Salbitani 041 88-506 - Palazzo Fortuny - Krauss Gallery, 3012 Venezia San Marco 2034, Ponte San Mosé Tel. 35004
7b: 68.2.50-136 440 170.00 [doodles] cette amie cela ne fon pas
8: 100 L 5 50 L 15 10
8b: [doodles]
9: 608402 Schneider Kremzenack Xecoetar 1:35/75, 5199327 - Leica M4-2 Leitz Wetzlar: 2678400 Snomicron 7:2 C 40 Leitz Wetzlar 2570851 - Elmar 1:4/90 Ernst Leitz Gmb11 Wetzlar Summicron 5 cm 1: 2 No. 1510907
9b: [doodles]
10: [doodles]
10b: [blank]
11: 21-444-423; 921-033-969; SG-13-119088; RG 21444-430; RG 21444-42; RD 94-033-966; RD94033-965; DD 94033-970,71,72,73,74,75,
11b: EG 13-119; 070,071,072,073,074,075,076,077,078,079
12: [blank]
12b: H. Nelson, P.O. 192 Evergreen, Colo. 80439 - Marie Wheeler, Rocky Point, Box 335, East Marion, R.I. - N.Y. 11931 Edina Bennett
13-51: [blank]
LM.AR6.NOTE26 Notebook 26. - date? - front and back covers intact; front cover green; back cover buff-coloured; 7 1/2 x 5 inches; 16 sheets; 16 sheets used.
inside front cover: [doodles]
1: Hazela Nelson, P.O. Box 192, Evergreen, Colo. 80439 - Vestal 203 266-7225 [page torn, bottom right corner]
1b: [doodles]
2: (1) to speak to photographers very difficult - (wrong) - images - photography, painting, sculpture, drawings are visual expressions (brain) - silent art - speaking about it - explanation - when it comes to one's own work it is even more difficult - photography particularly difficult because of importance of subject matter - photograph not the subject matter - subject matter becomes a photograph - we realize:
2b: there is a great difference between what the eye sees and what the camera sees - three dimensions, two dimensions - space and time - photograph is a fragment selected from an enormous subject matter - we rationalize that which we see in the eye - what is in the photograph - woman sitting on bench - photograph of man
3: sitting on bench - black and white - three dimensions in two dimensions - fragment taken out of enormous view - photographer selects light, angle, distance, contrast, to express into this subject his understanding of world in terms of photography - so if I show you some of my pictures I shall not explain only tell you where, place, etc. - not aesthetic - that should come home
3b: come out of image and understood visually - and as little as possible intellectually, because what an image says words cannot say, etc. - should be revised visually, sound with the ear - possibly different nerve centres come into action - how could I come to a photographic exhibition
4: it is very difficult to speak to photographs - more so to one's own - to try to explain images I think is a mistake to make in philosophy of art - and one's own works - photographs, like all images, are visual manifestations - should be understood, sensed though vision - not words - not analyzed if possible - visually sized up like music, through hearing
4b: in photography we have particularly another difficulty - mostly we photograph subjects around us - life - and easily we see mostly the subject matter - not the subtle transformation of subject matter into a photograph of the subject matter
5: there is no dog, no house, it is a photograph of it - and how photographer has proceeded to use the tools of the medium to transform the subject into the photograph [doodles]
5b: [doodles]
6: when it comes to photography and words, I feel it should be kept to a minimum - except, of course, when photographs are documents or illustration - of course education or advertising, etc., or photographs [as] journalistic stories and essays told with words - images - there the images cannot be understood without words - or travelogues - etc. - but when it comes to the understanding of images in generald
6b: words are distracting because images are not words - we know that . . . finally when we look at something or create images and the subject matter goes through the retina - whole eye reaches nerve ends, which lead to the brain - and these images affect different parts of the brain - it comes to different parts
7: of the brain - one affected by images - music, words, etc. - I will show you some of my slides so I am sorry that they are mostly the same as those in the book - and that you may have seen them already
7b: in a month or so I shall have a different set of slides but they are not ready - maybe I should tell you how I came to be a photographer - I was trained as a musician from early childhood - on violin, piano, singing, and then in my early teens I met and studied with the composer Arnold Schönberg, the most important influence in my life - but then something went wrong with my
8: voice and I turned to painting on my own - one day in 1937 I met a well-known composer, also student of Schönberg, in a coffee house in Paris - he asked be me what I was doing - I said I was . . . but I also had started to paint - he was horrified - don't you realize war is coming and you have nothing in your hands to make a living - I . . .
8b: my sister was an excellent amateur photographer who studied with Ergy Landau - I met several of the young women who were not photographers but laboratory workers - and then and there I decided I could learn how to do that in case I had to make a living - I bought a camera and enlarger to develop prints - soon after that I went to Nice where my mother lived
9: and took the pictures of Promenade des Anglais, having no idea [whether] they were good or bad - soon I came to the United States - that was the beginning - the field of photography as was known to me, as what is going on now
9b: 741-8923, Parson Darkroom - Bob Deshin, 6 Wingate Place, Great Neck, Long Island, New York 11021 - 516 HV 76804
10: 4,200, 12,000 [list of numbers crossed out]
10b: film developers - Mike, 254-9046 - Chinze, 777-2874 - Box 1 film development
11: Ziva Krause, Corso Duro 46, Venezia 30123, Italy - I am ill, cannot travel before one month - will call again - Love, Lisette - L.M., 137 7th Avenue South, New York City 10014
11b: Marty Forsher, strobe check - shoes, brassieres (repair) - cleaner: light winter coat, skirt, blouse - sweaters: old, new - laundry - cane - closets in order - letters - in touch with Con. Ed. Telephone Company, landlord - 226-3154, Molli
12: skulls angels 457-7777 - 673-0600 - 0777
12b: [page turned sideways] was out of town - many thanks - will be Paris beginning November - four weeks - very anxious meeting you
13: [blank]
13b: [doodles]
14: [blank]
14b: 925-0560, Arthur Moner - 661-9600, Hotel Roosevelt -Lisa 24-25 - [doodles]
15: 741-8923, Bob Parson - 215-473-9259 Allan
15b: vertebra tera pente
16: René Louis Addibbi, New York Hospital - Madame Mary Doyle [doodles]
16b: L.M. - grandma terrible - folleument doucée - Arles 90-96-7606 - Arles Bea, 30th, 19 Italy
inside back cover: DMFO - arthritis
LM.AR6.NOTE27 Notebook 27. - date? - writing tablet of white paper; front cover blue with design; back cover missing; 7 1/4 x 5 1/2 inches; 70 sheets; 14 sheets used; page numbering begins at end of writing tablet.
1: [one sheet is loose - not attached to writing tablet] (1) light - is the number one tool in black-and-white photography; (2) objects and subjects we see with our eyes are nothing but light and shadow; (3) the image is formed by the refracted light and shadows from the highlights to the deepest
1b: [blank]
2: shadows, including all the intermediary tones, and projected on the emulsion; (3) [sic] have you ever watched for 24 hours or 12 hours the light on a tree or a house and the changing expression, aspects, and moods that come about
2b: [blank]
3: (4) science says light is a radiant energy - travels in waves or radiation - these range from thousands of miles to one millionth of a [millimetre] called a millimicron; (5) our eyes see only from 400 millimicrons to 700 millimicrons - this is called the visible spectrum
3b: [blank]
4: (6) where a light ray passes a prism - this light ray is divided - into rays of different colours, different lengths, different bending
4b: [blank]
5: the visible spectrum goes from red (700 millimicrons), orange, yellow (600 millimicrons), to green (500 millimicrons), blue green, blue (400 millimicrons) - at the end is ultraviolet - invisible
5b: [blank]
6: above is infrared - invisible - the separation of a white light ray going through a prism is called dispersion
6b: [blank]
7: when a light ray goes through another medium of different density it changes direction - refraction - glass, water, pencil - light travels 186,000 miles in the air - ultraviolet filter extend only ultraviolet rays = less blue
7b: [blank]
8: infrared - excludes all colours except infrared -sky = dark - green - another way of looking at light - the main illumination on this planet is the sun - the sun rises and sets - under natural conditions half of our lives ought to be lived in light the other half in darkness
8b: [blank]
9: the change of light and darkness is one of the most important conditions for the development or evolution of man, animals, and plants - it is called periodicity
9b: [blank]
10: we have all heard of the gods of light - the forces of darkness - light identified with life, spirit - darkness with evil, death - when the camera black and white came into existence we had a powerful instrument in our hands
10b: [blank]
11: to express and to reveal and whatever it implies - light and shadow of subject, object - nature and man-made - different photographers use light and shadow in many different ways - examples: Cartier, Abbott, Engel
11b: [blank]
12: outdoor light is easily overlooked, taken for granted - artificial light, routine - angle 45 degrees - fashion: diffused light reflected from umbrellas - portraits: light higher up not far from lens - another far away weaker 45 degree angle
12b: [blank]
13: different light pushing them until right - or sufficient light to give a reading and then accents - best: starting one light in complete darkness - shadows produced by adding - it is the photographer's attitude of feeling of light that gives the
13b: [blank]
14: expression - eye glass reflection: light high or far on one side; long nose: low light, not profile; large ears: head sideways; strong chin: light low; puffy cheeks: light high, front; face: chin height; head and shoulders: waist level
14b-70b: [blank]
LM.AR6.NOTE28 Notebook 28. - date? - front and back covers intact; front and back covers mottled purple; 4 x 3 1/4 inches; 77 sheets (two torn in half); two sheets used.
1: drugs, meat? vegetables? mashed potatoes, blotter, blouse, coat, socks, soap, cookies, juice, cheese, soup [doodles]
1b: letters Harold, Nata, Pirkel, blotter - new sessions - the snapshot - tape Cartier - concentration - abstract surrealistic - ph. - William Laughlin - sequences
2: projects - La Roche, translate - subjective, objective photography - inmate photos [doodles]
3-77: [blank]
LM.AR6.NOTE29 Notebook 29. - date? - front and back covers intact; front and back covers mottled purple; 4 x 3 1/4 inches; 69 sheets; seven sheets used.
1: L.I. - subject matter - whenever = subject - object - nothing we cannot photograph, world = stage
1b: instrument of propaganda for war [or] against - social improvement - abolishment of bad conditions - different photographers, different ways of photographing - some respond to
2: specific subject matter others . . . or wide range - Cartier, Palfi, Abbott, Sander, Atget, Smith, Capra, Diane, Eliot Porter, Evans etc. - Abbott, when subject matter found
2b: photojournalism or instant - or the hidden face or snapshot - lumičre et hombres - modernizer [?] experiments, sequences
3: library, MoMA - La Roche - surrealism - abstract - Siskind - modern machines - colour
3b: paint shop - plastic - corduroy - measurements - small cushions in colour - black, red, green, yellow, violet - green, black, and violet
4: studio - paint boxes [doodles]
4b: assignments - Arles - photojournalism, to read, restrict, sprouts, onions - front - never done before - project - light
5: instant - sequence - nudes (Duane Michals) - force - close-up - groups - flowers - animals - new way of composition - contemporary - abstract - Siskind
5b: Smeil Zabr. - Al. Christ. - telephone, rent, Con Ed. - soup, eggs, Sanka, apple - Siskind, Duane Michals - Allan - wire - shoot in interior - flowers, museum, tripod, colour, Rolleiflex attachments
6: [doodles] - shooting from the hip - Bruce's photo - M. Forscher - plastic mat. - Marie Claire
6b: Marty Forscher - Film Photo Gallery - bank - lawyer - contract - I.C.P. - Zabriskie - work prints - exhibition prints - slides - letters and pills - Munich - Wechsler - Arles - Con. Ed - telephone - rent
7: Long Island University - plastic material - corduroy measure - 20 x 24 prints - 16 x 20 prints - work print - slides - income tax - Sander lawyer - Nadler
7b: Con. Ed. - history of photography - S. money - shoes, dress - Marie Claire
LM.AR6.NOTE30 Notebook 30. - front and back covers intact; front and back covers brown and beige; spiral bound; 8 1/4 x 7 inches; 48 sheets; Insert: nine sheets.
Note: Notebook has not been transcribed.
LM.AR6.NOTE31 Notebook 31. - front and back covers intact; front and back covers buff-coloured; 8 1/2 x 7 inches; 48 sheets.
First 19 pages of notebook are LM's handwritten criticisms of and retorts to Phillip Lopate's text. For typewritten version see LM.AR2.PU1.16
Note: Notebook has not been transcribed.
LM.AR6.NOTE32 Notebook 32.
Hand-drawn diagrams illustrating optics and mechanics of camera
LM.AR6.NOTE33 Notebook 33.
Loose sheets with LM's hand-written and typewritten lecture notes
Note: Notebook has not been transcribed.
LM.AR6.NOTE34 Notebook 34.
Two photographic montages of Model's work used for teaching purposes; on verso of one "Perspective" is inscribed in LM's handwriting

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